TEI Customization for the Digital Edition of Fernando Pessoa
generated by Roma 4.10
written by Ulrike Henny-Krahmer
2017ff.

Table of contents

1. Introduction

This document serves to describe how the TEI standard was customized for the project Digital Edition of Fernando Pessoa. Projects and Publications. In the project, two main types of sources are transcribed: (1) documents that Pessoa authored, containing editorial lists, notes, and plans (referenced as documents in the following), and (2) poems and prose texts that he published during lifetime (publications). The first type of source is hand- or typewritten and may include changes such as later additions, substitutions, or deletions. The second type consists of material printed in journals.

The encoding of the metadata in the TEI header and of information about images in the facsimile section are outlined for both types of sources together, differentiating between them where necessary. How the transcribed text is encoded in the TEI body is explained for each source type separately. Examples are given in the running text.

2. The TEI header

2.1. General information

2.1.1. Title, author and responsibilities

In the title statement of the TEI header, information about the title and author of a document or publication is gathered. In the case of the documents, the title corresponds to the identifier that the document has in the source collection that it was retrieved from, for example:

<title>BNP/E3 5-83<hi rend="superscript">r</hi> </title>

If the title is formatted in a special way this is marked up inside of the <title> element, as the superscript letter in the example.

The publications carry the title of the work published:

<title>De "O Guardador de Rebanhos"</title>

For the documents, the author is always Fernando Pessoa, as the historical person who wrote the editorial notes, lists, and plans:

<author>  <rs type="namekey="FP">Fernando Pessoa</rs> </author>

The author of a publication, in contrast, corresponds to the name that the work was published under and can also be one of Pessoa's heteronyms:

<author>  <rs type="namekey="AC">Alberto Caeiro</rs> </author>

In both cases, the name of the author is further marked up with an <rs> element declaring that the author's name is a reference to a person name identified elsewhere. In the project, an external list of person names is kept where each name has an identifier. The main heteronyms of Pessoa have the identifiers "FP" (Fernando Pessoa), "AC" (Alberto Caeiro), "AdC" (Álvaro de Campos), "RR" (Ricardo Reis), and "BS" (Bernardo Soares), which are given as values of the attribute key in the references.

Furthermore, in the title statement, different responsibilities for the creation of the encoded file are listed, each in an element <respStmt>, containing an element <resp> where the kind of responsibility (or responsibilities) is described and an element <name> indicating the full name of the person responsible:

<respStmt>  <resp>Edição,    Transcrição</resp>  <name>Pedro    Sepúlveda</name> </respStmt> <respStmt>  <resp>Transcrição</resp>  <name>Pablo    Javier Pérez    López</name> </respStmt> <respStmt>  <resp>Modelagem de dados,    Codificação</resp>  <name>Ulrike    Henny-Krahmer</name> </respStmt> <respStmt>  <resp>Codificação</resp>  <name>Alena    Geduldig</name> </respStmt> <respStmt>  <resp>Consultoria</resp>  <name>Institut    für Dokumentologie und Editorik    (IDE)</name> </respStmt>

2.1.2. Publication

The publication statement contains information about the published TEI file. An example of a publication statement is given in the following:

<publicationStmt>  <publisher>Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Instituto de Estudos de    Literatura e Tradição (IELT)</publisher>  <publisher>Cologne Center for eHumanities (CCeH)</publisher>  <date>2017</date>  <availability status="free">   <licence target="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/"/>  </availability>  <idno type="filename">BNP_E3_144D2-111r.xml</idno> </publicationStmt>

It contains information about the publishing institutions (encoded in the element <publisher>) and about the publication date of the file (in an element <date>). Furthermore, a statement on the availability of the file is made and a licence information is given. The availability can be either "free", if the file is already published, or "restricted", if the work on the TEI file is still ongoing. All the TEI documents are published under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0). Finally, the filename is given as an identifier in an <idno> element.

2.1.3. Description of the source

The sources of the documents and publications are documented in the source description. Because the documents are archival sources and the publications published bibliographic items, the source description for these two types of resources is made in a different way, as outlined in the following subsections.

2.1.3.1. Sources of documents

The sources of the documents are encoded inside of an element <msDesc> (manuscript description), which itself is a child element of the element <sourceDesc>:

<sourceDesc>  <msDesc> [...] </msDesc> </sourceDesc>

The manuscript description has three parts. The first part servers to identify the source, the second part to describe its contents, and the third part to encode details on the history of the source.

2.1.3.1.1. Identification

The identification is done inside of the element <msIdentifier>, which is the first child element of <msDesc>:

<msIdentifier>  <institution>Biblioteca Nacional de    Portugal</institution>  <idno>BNP/E3    144D2-111r</idno> </msIdentifier>

Inside of that element, the institution holding the source is indicated in an element <institution>. Furthermore, the identifier that the source has in the source institution as well as in this project is listed in an element <idno>.

2.1.3.1.2. Contents

The contents of the source are described in an element <msContents>, which follows after the element <msIdentifier>, as in the following example:

<msContents>  <summary>   <p> Lista manuscrita no      caderno 144D<hi rend="superscript">2</hi> (cf. <ref target="http://purl.pt/13880">http://purl.pt/13880</ref>), publicada em <hi rend="italic">Sensacionismo e outros Ismos</hi>      (2009, 343). </p>  </summary>  <msItemStruct>   <author>    <rs type="namekey="FP">Fernando        Pessoa</rs>   </author>   <note type="genre">    <rs type="genrekey="lista_editorial">Lista        editorial</rs>    <rs type="genrekey="plano_editorial">Plano        editorial</rs>   </note>   <textLang mainLang="pt"/>  </msItemStruct> </msContents>

The description of the contents has three parts. First, a general note on the source document is given in an element <summary>. The summary also indicates if and where a document has been published before, outside of this edition project. The second part of the content description is given in an element <msItemStruct> (structured manuscript item). It contains information about the author of the document (which is always Fernando Pessoa). Furthermore, it contains a note on the genre or genres of the document. This note is encoded with the element <note>, which has the attribute type and the value genre. Each genre inside of the note is marked with an element <rs> of the type genre. The attribute key indicates the identifier of the genre. Inside of the <rs> element, the name of the genre is given in text form and in Portuguese language. The following three genres of documents occur: "Lista editorial" (lista_editorial), "Plano editorial" (plano_editorial), and "Nota editorial" (nota_editorial). Finally, also the language or languages of the text on the document are indicated, in the element <textLang>. The main language of a document is given in the attribute mainLang on that element. The value of that attribute is a shortcut for a language, in this case "pt" for Portuguese.

2.1.3.1.3. History
2.1.3.2. Sources of publications

3. Facsimiles

The <facsimile> element is used to hold information about the image files that represent a facsimile of the text transcribed in the TEI body. The image files for the Pessoa edition are stored on the image server of the Cologne Center for eHumanities (CCeH). The link to the image server is given in the attribute xml:base on <facsimile>. In all the TEI files, <facsimile> contains one or more <graphic> elements, each indicating the path to individual image files in url. These paths are relative to the base URI for the images, for example:

<facsimile xml:base="http://images.cceh.uni-koeln.de/pessoa/">  <graphic url="prosa/Notas_para_a_recordacao_1.jpg"/>  <graphic url="prosa/Notas_para_a_recordacao_2.jpg"/> </facsimile>

4. Transcriptions

4.1. Encoding of documents

4.1.1. General structure

The transcription of documents is encoded inside of the TEI <text> and <body> elements. Each text body must at least contain one division, encoded with a <div> element:

<text>  <body>   <div>    <head>     <hi rend="underline">      <rs type="collectionkey="C16">       <rs type="titlekey="T184">Na Casa de saude de              Cascaes</rs>      </rs>     </hi>    </head> [...] </div>  </body> </text>

The example is taken from the document BNP 5-83r which begins with the heading "Na Casa de saude...". This heading introduces the first division of the document and is therefore included inside a <div>. The facsimile of the whole document is given in the following:

Here it becomes visible that the document has three parts, each starting with an own heading. Each of these parts is encoded in an own division:

<text>  <body>   <div>    <head>     <hi rend="underline">      <rs type="collectionkey="C16">       <rs type="titlekey="T184">Na Casa de saude de              Cascaes</rs>      </rs>     </hi>    </head> [...] </div>   <metamark rend="linefunction="distinct"/>   <div>    <head>     <rs type="title">      <hi rend="underline">Vida e obras do engenheiro<lb/>       <rs type="namekey="AdCrole="topic">Alvaro de              Campos</rs>      </hi>     </rs>.</head>   </div>   <metamark rend="linefunction="distinct"/>   <div>    <head>     <hi rend="underline">      <rs type="title">Livro do            Desassocego</rs>.</hi>    </head> [...] </div>  </body> </text>

Divisions can also be nested if there is a subpart inside of a general part.

4.1.2. Structures inside of divisions: headings, paragraphs, lists, tables, ...

Inside of the main divisions of a document, further structures are encoded, such as headings, paragraphs, lists, or tables.

4.1.2.1. Headings

Headings are included in a <head> element and should occur directly after the opening of a division or other main structure:

<div>  <head>   <hi rend="underline">    <rs type="collectionkey="C16">     <rs type="titlekey="T184">Na Casa de saude de          Cascaes</rs>    </rs>   </hi>  </head> [...] </div>
4.1.2.2. Paragraphs and other blocks

Paragraphs are encoded with a <p> element. A simple example is shown in the following:

<p>Omitto neste os commentarios de <rs type="namekey="P362">Augusto da    Costa</rs>,<lb/> poisque são d’elle e não meus.</p>

Text that is not a full paragraph can be encoded with a <ab> element ("anonymous block"):

<div>  <head>   <hi rend="underline">    <rs type="collectionkey="C16">     <rs type="titlekey="T184">Na Casa de saude de          Cascaes</rs>    </rs>   </hi>  </head>  <ab>inclue:    –</ab> [...] </div>

Also enumerations of titles can have the form of paragraphs (instead of lists), if the items are written down one after the other without structuring them as a list. An example is shown in the following facsimile of the list BNP 125A-52r:

The second part of the document, entitled "Manual do Sebastianista", contains three titles that are mentioned directly after each other and just separated by an hyphen. This is encoded as follows, wrapping a <p> element around the titles:

<head>  <hi rend="underline">   <rs type="title">Manual do      Sebastianista</rs>  </hi> </head> <p>  <rs type="title">Historia do sebastianismo</rs><lb/>  <rs type="title">Prophecias <del rend="overstrike">sebastianistas</del>   <lb/>e sua interpretação</rs><rs type="title">A re<pc>-</pc>   <lb/>nascença do    sebastianismo</rs>. </p>
4.1.2.3. Lists

A list is a set of ordered items that may be numbered or not. Lists are encoded with the element <list>, which contains one or several child elements <item>, as in the following example:

<list rend="inline">  <item rend="indent-2">   <label>(1)</label>    Introducção, entrevista<lb/> com <rs type="namekey="P1style="b">Antonio Mora</rs>.  </item>  <item>   <label>(2)</label>   <rs type="titlekey="W32">    <rs type="titlekey="T48">     <rs type="namekey="ACrole="author">Alberto          Caeiro</rs>    </rs>   </rs>  </item>  <item>   <label>(3)</label>   <rs type="namekey="RRrole="author">Ricardo Reis</rs>.  </item>  <item rend="indent-2">   <label>(4)</label>   <rs type="title">“Prolegomenos”</rs> de <rs type="namekey="P1style="b">Antonio<lb/> Mora</rs>.  </item>  <item>   <label>(5)</label>   <rs type="title">“Fragmentos”</rs>. </item> </list>

If the items are numbered or otherwise marked (for example by initial dashes), these marks are encoded with the element <label> at the beginning of each list item. The text of the list item follows directly after the label.

4.1.2.3.1. Lists inside of lists

Sometimes, an item of a list contains itself another list. An example is shown in the following facsimile of the list BNP 128-11r:

The last part contains a list with two items: "Parlour Games" and "Technical Dictionaries". The "Technical Dictionaries" item contains itself a sublist of two items: "A. Commercial" and "B.". This is encoded by using a list inside of a list:

<list>  <item>   <hi rend="underline">Parlour Games.</hi>  </item>  <item rend="indent-2">   <hi rend="underline">Technical      Dictionaries.</hi>   <list rend="inline">    <item>     <label>A.</label>     <hi rend="underline">Commercial.</hi>    </item>    <item>     <label>B.</label>     <supplied resp="PS"      reason="omitted-in-original"/>    </item>   </list>  </item> </list>

After the text of the item "Technical Dictionaries", but still inside of that item, another <list> element opens. It has the attribute rend with the value inline to mark that this sublist should not begin on a new line but be placed after the text of the item containing it. The items of the sublist are encoded inside of this second <list> element in the usual way.

Another example of a sublist can be seen on the following page of the list BNP 133M-96 a 98:

In the third item "Gamage...", there is a sublist which does not start on the same line as the item text, but on the next line. Still, the list is indented, so that it becomes clear that it is a list inside the bigger list. This is encoded as:

<item>  <label>3.</label> Gamage, or another, or elseways: <list rend="indent">   <item>Table-football.</item>   <item>(<choice>     <abbr>      <metamark rend="quotes"       function="ditto"/>     </abbr>     <expan>Table</expan>    </choice>-cricket).</item>   <item>Strategy.</item>   <item>Opposition.</item>   <item>(Aspects)</item>   <item>Lomelino’s      game.</item>  </list> </item>

The only difference to the previous example is that the attribute rend has the value indent instead of inline.

4.1.2.4. Tables

On the some of the documents, the structure of the text is more similar to a table than to a list or could be interpreted as both a list or a table. The following facsimile of the list BNP 144Q-34r shows such a case:

The first part of the document contains a list to which a column of numbers is attached to the right. To be able to align this last column with the list entries, the whole list is encoded as a table:

<table>  <row>   <cell cols="3rend="right">    <choice>     <abbr>approx<am>.</am>     </abbr>     <expan>approx<ex>imadamente</ex>     </expan>    </choice>    <choice>     <abbr>no<am>.</am>     </abbr>     <expan>      <ex>number</ex>     </expan>    </choice>    <lb/>    <hi rend="underline">of        pages.</hi>   </cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell>    <label>1.</label>   </cell>   <cell>Introduction      (brief).</cell>   <cell rend="right">4.</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell>    <label>2.</label>   </cell>   <cell>    <rs type="title">The Anarchist Banker</rs>.</cell>   <cell rend="right">54.</cell>  </row>  <row>   <cell>    <label>3.</label>   </cell>   <cell>    <rs type="workkey="W141">     <rs type="titlekey="T178">Complete Poems of <rs type="namerole="authorkey="AC">Alberto Caeiro</rs>     </rs>    </rs>. <lb/>(or      only <rs type="workkey="W142">     <rs type="titlekey="T179">The “Keeper of          Flocks”</rs>    </rs>) </cell>   <cell/>  </row> [...] </table>

Tables are encoded with the element <table>. They contain first rows, encoded with the element <row>, and then for each row the column values, encoded with the element <cell>. Here, the table has a row for each list entry and three columns. The first column holds the labels of the entries (1., 2., 3., ...). The second column contains the text of the entires ("Introduction (brief)", "The Anarchist Banker", etc.), and the third column contains the number of pages. For the items for which no page numbers are given, the third <cell> is left empty, but it still needs to be there, so that the structure of the table is correct. In columns with numbers, the text is usually aligned to the right. This is indicated with the attribute rend on the respective <cell> and the value right. The first row of the column is special, because it only contains a heading for the third column: "approx. no. of pages". Here, only one <cell> element is given for the row which has the attribute <cols> with the value 3. This means that in that row, one column spans over the width of all the three table columns. In addition, the text of this cell is aligned to the right, using the attribute rend with the value right on <cell>, so that the text "approx. no. of pages" appears to the right. Also the lower part of the document contains a list that has a column with page numbers attached to it and is therefore interpreted as having a tabular structure.

4.1.2.5. Notes

Notes can occur everywhere in a document. Usually, a note is contained inside of a list or at the margin of it. Notes may be interpreted as part of the original version of a list or as having been added later. In the latter case, they are encoded genetically (for an example of the genetic encoding of a note see Notes added on the margin). An example of simple notes added to the margin is shown in the following facsimile:

Here Pessoa placed question marks to the left of some of the list items. This is encoded as follows:

<item>  <hi rend="underline">   <rs type="namekey="P2">Anton      Tchekhov</rs>  </hi>: <rs type="title">Vanka</rs>. </item> <item>  <note place="margin-left">? -</note>  <hi rend="underline">   <rs type="namekey="P3">José Enrique      Rodó</rs>  </hi>: <rs type="title">Ariel</rs>. </item>

Here, the second item has a note on the left margin. When the note is on the left margin, the element <note> is added at the beginning of the list item, inside of the element <item>. The <note> gets the attribute place, in this case with the value margin-left. For place, also the values margin-right (then the <note> element would be added at the end of the list item), top, below, and center are possible. The text of the note is simply added inside of the <note> element.

4.1.2.6. Line breaks

Line breaks of text are encoded using the empty element <lb> as in the following example of a list item which continues on a second line:

<item rend="indent-2">  <label>(1)</label> Introducção, entrevista<lb/> com <rs type="namekey="P1style="b">Antonio Mora</rs>. </item>

The element <lb> is only used if the line break is not due to the structure, meaning that new divisions, paragraphs or list items are not especially marked with <lb>, only line breaks in running text are marked with it.

4.1.2.7. Punctuation characters

Sometimes it is necessary to encode punctuation characters, for example hyphens used to divide words at the end of lines, so that these can be displayed or not when the document is rendered, depending on whether line breaks are included in the visualization of the document or not. Punctuation characters are encoded with the element <pc>, as in the following example:

<label>Trez<lb/>Disserta<pc>-</pc>  <lb/>ções.</label>

Here there is an hyphen between "Disserta" and "ções" which is marked up with the element <pc>. The line break following the division is encoded after the punctuation characters, using the empty element <lb>.

4.1.3. (Typo)graphical renditions

An important part of the encoding of the documents in the project is how certain aspects of them were rendered in the sources. In general, indications about how something looked like (how it was (typo)graphically emphasized or organized) are made in the attribute rend, which can be used on many different elements.

4.1.3.1. Alignment of text

By default, the text of different elements is shown on the left side of the page. It the text should instead be centered or appear on the right side, this can be indicated with the attribute rend and the values center or right. An example of a heading which is centered is given in the following:

<head rend="center">Q.</head>
4.1.3.2. Highlighted characters, words, or passages
4.1.3.2.1. Underlinings

Often, Pessoa highlighted text by underlining it. This is encoded using the element <hi> in combination with rend. In the following example, the whole heading is underlined. It does therefore contain a child element <hi> with the attribute rend, having the value underline:

<head>  <hi rend="underline">   <rs type="collectionkey="C16">    <rs type="titlekey="T184">Na Casa de saude de        Cascaes</rs>   </rs>  </hi> </head> [...]

Also individual characters or words can be underlined. Then the <hi> element is just wrapped around these parts.

4.1.3.2.2. Superscripts

If text (or individual letters) are added as a superscript, meaning that they are attached as small letters to the top of a preceding word, this is encoded as follows:

<item>  <label>5.</label>  <rs type="title">Carta do <rs type="namekey="P222">    <choice>     <abbr>M<hi rend="superscript">z</hi>     </abbr>     <expan>M<ex>arquez</ex>     </expan>    </choice>      de Pombal</rs>  </rs>. </item>

In the example, the list item contains the name "Marquez de Pombal", which is abbreviated using just the letter "M" with a small superscript "z" for "Marquez". The superscript is encoded with the element <hi> and the attribute rend with the value superscript.

4.1.3.2.3. Frames (square boxes)

Sometimes, Pessoa highlights parts of a list by drawing a frame around it. An example can be seen on the list 133M-30r:

Here, a box is drawn around the text "(Advertise for Cipher Agency - America)". This is encoded as follows (this is at the same time an example of a modification, see Other modifications):

<item>  <mod rend="framedn="2">(Advertise for Cipher Agency    — <lb/> America).</mod> </item>

The element <mod> surrounds the text to be framed. The attribute rend indicates how it should be modified, here by adding a frame (framed). The attribute n with the value 2 indicates that the modification was only done later and should be part of the second edited version of the document.

If the frame was not added later, but would have been part of the original list, instead of <mod> the element <hi> could be used to say that the passage is highlighted by framing it:

<item>  <hi rend="framed">(Advertise for Cipher Agency —  <lb/> America).</hi> </item>
4.1.3.2.4. Circled text

Sometimes Pessoa circles text to highlight it, meaning that he surrounds text with a circle. This is encoded as follows:

<note place="margin-rightrend="circled"  n="2"></note>

In the example, a note on the right margin is circled, which is just indicated by adding the attribute rend to the note and give it the value circled.

Also, the element <hi> can be used, as in the following example:

<p rend="center">  <anchor xml:id="A4"/>  <hi rend="circled">or</hi> Being an apology <subst>   <add n="2place="above">for</add>   <del n="1">of</del>  </subst> all culture not genuine. </p>

Here, there is a part inside of a paragraph that is circled. Because this part has no element by itself to attach the attribute rend to, the element <hi> is used to mark that the text is highlighted. Again the value of rend is circled.

4.1.3.3. Indentations

It may be the case that the text does not start directly at the beginning of a line but is indented. In the following example, there is a list which is not starting in an own line, but after the text "inclue: –". The list does therefore carry the attribute rend with the value inline.

<ab>inclue: –</ab> <list rend="inline">  <item rend="indent-2">   <label>(1)</label> Introducção,    entrevista<lb/> com <rs type="namekey="P1style="b">Antonio Mora</rs>. </item> [...] </list>

Also, in this example, the text of the list items is indented from the second line on (meaning that the first line of each item is not indented, but every other line following it, is). This is indicated b using the rend with indent-2. To get an impression of how this looks like, see the facsimile of this document:

4.1.3.4. Division lines

Often, Pessoa draws lines on his documents to mark divisions between different parts of his notes. Such division lines are encoded using the element <metamark>, as in the following example, where a line is drawn between a list and the next heading:

<div> [...] <list> [...]  <item>    <label>(5)</label>    <rs type="title">“Fragmentos”</rs>. </item>  </list> </div> <metamark rend="linefunction="distinct"/> <div>  <head>   <rs type="title">    <hi rend="underline">Vida e obras do engenheiro<lb/>     <rs type="namekey="AdCrole="topic">Alvaro de          Campos</rs>    </hi>   </rs>.</head> [...] </div>

"Metamark" means that this mark servers as a guide to the structure of the document, to how it should be read (for example, in which order). The attribute rend is used here to indicate the style of the mark, in this case a line. Also the function of the mark is encoded in the attribute function. In this case the function is to indicate that a new, different section of the document begins, so the value of the attribute is distinct.

4.1.3.5. Division space

Instead of division lines, sometimes there is just additional space on the documents to mark the difference between one list and the next, or between different items of a list. In the following facsimile of the list BNP 12-1 10r, there is a list about Antonio Móra consisting of three parts. The first part has three list items, then two other items follow separated by space from the first part of the list:

To encode such spaces, the element <metamark> is used with the attribute rend having the value space. In the above example, the function of the space is to signal that the items are distinguished from each other, so the metamark gets the additional attribute function with the value distinct:

<item>  <rs type="title">Dissertação sobre a arte    moderna</rs>. </item> <metamark rend="spacefunction="distinct"/> <item rend="indent-2">  <rs type="title">Prolegómenos a uma    reformação<lb/>do paganismo</rs>. </item>

Such metamarks may be added between lists, or between list items. In the above example, the mark is added inside of the list between the individual items.

4.1.3.6. Lines as placeholders

In the documents, sometimes Pessoa uses lines as placeholders for some text that he maybe wished to add later. In the following facsimile of the document BNP 87 68r, the third list item of he second list on the page begins with a line, followed by the text "(some new collaborator)".

Here, the line clearly stands for some name to be added later. This is encoded as follows:

<item>  <label>3.</label>  <choice>   <abbr>    <metamark rend="line"     function="placeholder"/>   </abbr>   <expan>    <supplied resp="PS"     reason="omitted-in-original"/>   </expan>  </choice> (some new collaborator) </item>

The line is marked up with the element <metamark> and the attribute rend with the value line. It has another attribute function with the value placeholder. In this example, the editor decided to explain that some text was omitted here, so the placeholder line is interpreted as an abbreviation standing for some other text. It is therefore enclosed in a construction of <choice> with the child elements <abbr> (containing the line mark) and <expan> (containing the supposed expansion). But, as the text that the placeholder stands for is not known, <expan> contains an element <supplied> with reason omitted-in-original.

Lines can also serve as placeholders for text that was already mentioned before. In the following example, a line is used to signal that text from the preceding list item is repeated:

<choice>  <abbr>   <metamark rend="linefunction="ditto"/>  </abbr>  <expan>Traducção de <rs type="namekey="ACrole="author">Alberto Caeiro</rs>  </expan> </choice>

Here, the line has the function of "ditto". Is is encoded with the element <metamark>, carrying the attribute rend with the value line and the attribute function with the value ditto. In this context, the line serves as an abbreviation, which is expanded to the text that it represents. For more details about this example, see the section on abbreviations below.

4.1.3.7. Space as placeholder

Like lines, also space can serve as a placeholder either for some text that Pessoa wished to add later, or in the function of "ditto", repeating some text that was given earlier.

An example of the first case is visible in the facsimile of the list BNP 87 40r:

Here, the first three list items were entirely left blank and the fourth was left blank in the beginning. Such items are encoded as follows:

<item>  <label>3.</label>  <choice>   <abbr>    <metamark rend="space"     function="placeholder"/>   </abbr>   <expan>    <supplied resp="PS"     reason="omitted-in-original"/>   </expan>  </choice> </item> <item rend="indent-2">  <label>4.</label>  <choice>   <abbr>    <metamark rend="space"     function="placeholder"/>   </abbr>   <expan>    <supplied resp="PS"     reason="omitted-in-original"/>   </expan>  </choice><rs type="namekey="P80">Angelo de Lima</rs>,<lb/>  <note>(in fine)</note> </item>

The space is marked up with the element <metamark> and the attribute rend with the value space, as well as the attribute function with the value placeholder. It is interpreted as an abbreviation for something else, so it is surrounded by an element <abbr>. This is expanded inside of an element <expan>, which containts an element <supplied>, saying with the attribute reason and the value omitted-in-original, that the editor thinks that some text is missing here. The responsibility of this interpretation is given in the attribute resp which takes the initials of the editor as value. Finally, both <abbr> and <expan> are contained inside of an element <choice>, indicating that these two encodings are alternative views on the document, a more documentary one marking the space and a more interpretive one saying that something was omitted.

An example of the second case, space serving as "ditto", can be seen in the facsimile of the list BNP 48-56r:

Here the names initiating list items are only given the first time, e. g. "Robert Browning : Eveln Hope." From the second time on, there is just a space, which is thought to be filled with the same name. This is encoded as follows:

<choice>  <abbr>   <metamark rend="spacefunction="ditto"/>  </abbr>  <expan>   <rs type="namekey="P267">Robert      Browning</rs>  </expan> </choice>

The element <choice> is used to mark that either the blank space can be shown or the name that it stands for. The blank space is interpreted as an abbreviation and marked up with the element <abbr>, inside of which <metamark> is used to mark the space itself. The <metamark> element here has the attribute rend with the value space and the attribute function with the value ditto. The expansion is then used to fill in the text that the space stands for, in this case the name "Robert Browning". This is encoded in the element <expan>.

4.1.3.8. Curly brackets

Curly brackets are often part of notes added to the margin by Pessoa. They are encoded using the element <metamark> with rend having the value curly-bracket.

<metamark rend="curly-bracket"  function="grouping">  <label>Trez<lb/>Disserta<pc>-</pc>   <lb/>ções.</label> </metamark>

For an explanation of a complete example of a margin note, see the section on Notes added on the margin.

4.1.3.9. Crosses

Pessoa uses crosses to mark that he is uncertain or has doubts about a passage of text on a document. An example is shown in the following facsimile from the list BNP 48, 18 and 19:

After the name "Alfredo Guisado" (the fith list item from the bottom) there is text in parentheses which is marked with a cross to the right: "(baloiço que me baloiça ?)+" This cross is interpreted as marking that Pessoa is not sure about the text preceding it in parentheses. This is marked up as follows:

<item>  <hi rend="underline">   <rs type="namekey="P36style="a">Alfredo      Guisado</rs>:</hi>  <seg type="certaintycert="lowresp="FP"   rend="cross right">(baloiço que me    baloiça ?)</seg> </item>

To mark the uncertain passage, the element <seg> is used with the attribute type having the value certainty. The degree of certainty is indicated in the attribute cert and can be high, medium, or low. That Pessoa was the one having doubts is indicated with the attribute resp with the value FP. Here the cross is not included in the transcription anymore, because the uncertainty is indicated with the TEI element and the attribute rend is used to mark how it was rendered originally (here with the value cross right to say that the passage was marked with a cross on the right side; another possible value would be cross left).

4.1.3.10. Arrows

On some lists, Pessoa uses arrows to connect different passages of text, or to show that some text is moved somewhere else. An example can be seen in the following facsimile of the list BNP 136-57v:

The last part of this document contains an arrow pointing from the heading "The New Decadence" to "or Being an apology of all culture not genuine". This is encoded as follows:

<div>  <head rend="center">   <metamark rend="arrow-down"    function="assignmenttarget="#A3"/>   <hi rend="underline">    <rs type="periodicalkey="J55">The New        Decadence</rs>   </hi>  </head>  <p rend="center">An Introduction to the Study of  <lb/>Indifference.</p> </div> <metamark rend="line center"  function="distinct"/> <div>  <p rend="center">   <anchor xml:id="A3"/>   <hi rend="circled">or</hi>    Being an apology <subst>    <add n="2place="above">for</add>    <del n="1">of</del>   </subst> all culture    not genuine. </p> </div>

The arrow itself is encoded as an element <metamark> with the attribute rend having the value arrow-down and the attribute function having the value assignment, because the arrow serves to assign the text to something else. Other renditions of arrows are possible: arrow-up, arrow-left, arrow-right, arrow-left-down, arrow-left-up, arrow-right-down, arrow-right-up, arrow-left-curved-down, arrow-left-curved-up, arrow-right-curved-down, arrow-right-curved-up, depending on in which direction the arrow points (up, down, left, right, or a combination of these) and whether it is straight or curved. The attribute target points to an anchor somewhere else which marks the point the arrow points to and the value of this attribute is the identifier of that anchor, preceded by "#", in this case #A3. In this example, the anchor is defined at the beginning of another paragraph and is added before the text of that paragraph begins. It is encoded with the element <anchor> and has the attribute xml:id to define the identifier A3.

There can also be text on arrows, as in the following example:

In the lower part of the list, there is a deleted item "(Antonio Mora)" that has two arrows at the end, one pointing to another item below it and the other pointing up. The arrow that points up has the text "F Pessoa" on it. This is encoded using an element <label> inside the <metamark> for the arrow, as in the following example:

<item>  <del rend="overstrike">(<rs type="namekey="P1">Antonio      Mora</rs>).</del>  <metamark rend="arrow-right-curved-up"   function="assignmenttarget="#A1n="2">   <label>    <rs type="namekey="FPstyle="b">     <choice>      <abbr>F</abbr>      <expan>F<ex>ernando</ex>      </expan>     </choice>        Pessoa</rs>   </label>  </metamark>  <metamark rend="arrow-right-curved-down"   function="assignmenttarget="#A2n="2"/> </item>

Each of the arrows is encoded with an element <metamark>. One arrow has the attribute rend with the value arrow-right-curved-down, because it is an arrow that is curved and points downwards on the right side, and the other one has the value arrow-right-curved-up, as it is curved and points up on the right side. Both <metamark> elements have the attribute function with the value assignment because the arrows assign a list item to other places in the document. In the attributes target, the identifiers of the elements marking the goal of the arrows ("A1" and "A2") are given, preceded by the "#". These <anchor> elements are defined elsewhere, as in the previous example. Inside of the first <metamark> element, the text on the error is encoded in the element <label>. Here, the text is the name "F Pessoa", so the label contains a reference to a name and an abbreviation which is expanded.

4.1.3.11. Vertical text

On some handwritten documents, the text of notes on the side or entire lists is turned around and appears in vertical form. An example is shown in the following facsimile of the list BNP 133F-36v:

At the top left of the document, there is a list rotated to the left. In the lower part of the document, a side note is attached to the second and third item of a list, which is also written as vertical text, rotated to the left. In TEI, this is encoded as follows:

<list rend="rotate-left">  <item>   <label>1.</label>   <rs type="title">Ultimatum</rs>.  </item>  <item>   <label>2.</label>   <rs type="title">Desnivelamento</rs>  </item> [...] </list>

The list at the top of the document gets an attribute rend with the value rotate-left. The same attribute and attribute value are used for the margin note. There, the element <label>, which holds the text that the curly bracket points to, has the rend attribute with rotate-left.

<note place="margin-left"  target="range(I6,I7)">  <metamark rend="curly-bracket"   function="grouping">   <label rend="rotate-left">quase-<lb/>Epistolario</label>  </metamark> </note>

4.1.4. Genetic encoding (additions, substitutions, deletions, ...)

The genetic encoding involves changes that Pessoa himself made to the documents, for example text that he added, changed or deleted later. Such changes are interpreted as belonging to a second temporal level. Just two levels are differentiated, a first version (level 1) and a final version (level 2).

4.1.4.1. Additions

In general, additions are encoded using the element <add>. The following facsimile shows an example of an addition:

In the second list item, a note is added below the word "Arist". This is encoded in the following way:

<item>— Voto – Democracia – <seg type="anchor">   <choice>    <abbr>Arist</abbr>    <expan>Arist<ex>ocracia</ex>    </expan>   </choice> (critica) <add place="belown="2">como se passa de uma idéa de aristocracia a      outra</add>  </seg> </item>

The element <add> is used to mark up the text that is added, in this case "como se passa de uma idéa de aristocracia a outra". This element carries an attribute place indicating where the addition is positioned in relationship to the existing text, in this case below it. The attribute place may have the values above, below, after, or margin-left. The second attribute used on <add> is n. It serves to mark the level of the genetic encoding, here the second level (2) because the text was added to the list later.

There is a third important element of the encoding of this addition. In the example, the element <seg> (segment) with the attribute type and the value anchor is used to create an anchor point for the addition. This means that the addition relates to the point in the text where "Arist (critica)" occurs. It is important that the <add> element occurs inside if the anchor <seg>. Such an anchor segment is only needed when the addition is not placed in relationship to the whole item that it occurs in (and that already has an own XML structure), but only refers to a part of it. In this case, the whole item is "— Voto – Democracia – Arist (critica)", but the addition is only made to the latter part, and "Arist (critica)" did not have any own mark-up before, so the segment is added here.

4.1.4.1.1. Notes added on the margin

A special case of addition are notes that Pessoa added on the margin of a document. Often, curly brackets are used to group items in a list and add a note to them. An example of this can be seen in the following facsimile taken from the document BNP 12-1 10r:

Here the first three items of the list have a note added on the right margin ("Tres Dissertações"). This note is encoded as follows:

<item xml:id="I1">  <rs type="title">Dissertação sobre as    revoluções</rs>. </item> <item xml:id="I2rend="indent-2">  <rs type="title">Dissertação a    favôr da Allemanha<lb/>e do seu procedimento na    guerra presente</rs>. <note target="range(I1,I3)"   place="margin-righttype="additionn="2">   <metamark rend="curly-bracket"    function="grouping">    <label>Trez<lb/>Disserta<pc>-</pc>     <lb/>ções.</label>   </metamark>  </note> </item> <item xml:id="I3">  <rs type="title">Dissertação sobre a    arte moderna</rs>. </item>

For the note itself, the element <note> is used. It has several attributes. First, the note is of the type addition. Second, it has the attribute place, indicating where the note was added, in this case on the right margin, so it has the value margin-right. Other possible values for place of <note> are margin-left, below, top, and center. Third, the note carries the attribute n with the value 2, indicating that the note is part of the last version of the document because it is interpreted as having been added later by Pessoa. Fourth, the note has an attribute target. This serves to explain to which items of the list the note is added. In this example, the note is added to the three first items in the list. To be able to address these items formally, they need an identifier in the XML. Therefore, the three list items each carry an attribute xml:id with unique values, here I1, I2 and I3. Then the target of the <note> can use these identifiers and point to them. The value of the <note>'s target is range(I1,I3), which means that the note points from the first item to the third item. The element <note> is here place inside of the second list item, after the text of the list item. The best way to place the note is in the middle of the range of items it points to. Because it points to item 1-3 here, item 2 is a good place to position the <note> element. The note itself is further encoded inside of the <note> element. Here, an element <metamark> is added to represent the curly bracket. It has two attributes: rend with the value curly-bracket and function with the value grouping, because the bracket serves to group the three list items. Finally, the curly bracket has a "label", which is the text of the note. This is encoded inside of an element <label>. The text is added here, and the line breaks occurring in the text are also marked with empty <lb> elements. Also, there is an hyphen dividing the word "Dissertações", which is encoded with the element <pc> (for punctuation character).

Another example of a note added to the margin is visible in the following list BNP 133M-30r:

At the top of the document, two words are written on the right side of the typed list. Both are struck through. This margin note is encoded as follows:

<item>Commercial Code. <note place="margin-rightn="2">   <del rend="overstrike">    <gap reason="illegibleextent="1"     unit="word"/>   </del>   <lb/>   <del rend="overstrike">    <gap reason="illegibleextent="1"     unit="word"/>   </del>  </note> </item>

The note is interpreted as belonging to the first list item, so an element <note> is added at the end of this first list item. The <note> element carries the attribute place to say that the note is added on the right margin of the list (margin-right) and the attribute n with the value 2 to say that the note was added to the list later and is interpreted as belonging to the second edited version of this document, but not to the first one. The text of the note itself is transcribed and encoded inside of the <note> element, just that in this case, the words could not be read by the editor. They are therefore marked up as two <gap>s, each with reason illegible, unit word, and extent 1. The words are separated by a line break (<lb>) and are both deleted, which is marked-up with the element <del> and the attribute rend with the value overstrike.

4.1.4.1.2. Additions of longer passages of text

In some cases it is not just one or several characters or words that is added to a list, but more text, for example several new list items or a whole list. In those cases, the element <add> is impractical because it cannot contain structures such as several list items or a whole list, so another solution is needed for the mark-up of such additions. An example can be seen in the following list BNP 133M-30r:

On this document, a handwritten list ("1. System of Shorthand. 2. Look for door...") is added to a typed list which was present first. This is encoded as follows:

<addSpan n="2spanTo="#A1"/> <list>  <item>   <label>1.</label> System of    Shorthand. </item>  <item>   <label>2.</label> Look for door    — in instead of out. </item> </list> <anchor xml:id="A1"/>

Before the list that is to be added, an element <addSpan> is used. This is an empty element (it has no opening and closing tag, but just one tag which closes directly with />). It is just to mark the beginning of the text span to be added. The attribute n with the value 2 says that the text that follows is to be added to the second edited version of this document, but is not present in the first version. The other attribute spanTo serves to indicate where the added text ends. The value of this attribute is a pointer to the identifier of another element. The "#" means that this attribute points to something else and the "A1" is the identifier pointed to. This identifier is defined on the element <anchor>, which is used to mark the end of the stretch of text to be added. In this case, the <anchor> element occurs after the list to be added. It carries the attribute xml:id with the value A1.

4.1.4.2. Substitutions

There are two kinds of substitutions. In the first case, something is deleted and replaced with something else. In the second case, an alternative is added without deleting the first option.

An example of the first case (something is deleted and replaced) can be seen in the following facsimile of the list BNP 143 6r:

In the fourth item of the list, the word "large" is overtyped and replaced with the word "big", which is put above the old word. This list item is encoded in the following way:

<item>  <rs type="title">Biomancy</rs> (fairly <subst>   <del rend="overtypedn="1">large</del>   <add place="aboven="2">big</add>  </subst> article) </item>

The word that is deleted ("large") is marked up with the element <del>. It has the attribute rend with the value overtyped, because the word is deleted by typing some "xxx" over it. The attribute n with the value 1 says that the word "large" belongs to the first version of this document (before it was deleted). The word that is added instead ("big") is encoded with the element <add>. Where the new word is added is indicated in the attribute place, which has the value above here. Also, the addition carries the attribute n with the value 2, saying that this addition belongs to the second, final version of the document. Both the deletion and the addition are surrounded by an element <subst>, indicating that this is a substitution.

Another example of substitutions can be seen in the facsimile of the list BNP 120-23r:

In the fourth list item, there are two kinds of substitutions. The first one is that the letter "A" is overwritten with the letter "O", and the second one that the word "Agua" is struck through and the word "Segredo" added above it to replace it. This list item is encoded in the following way:

<item>  <label>4.</label>  <rs type="title">   <subst>    <del rend="overwrittenn="1">A</del>    <add n="2">O</add>   </subst>   <subst>    <del rend="overstriken="1">Agua</del>    <add place="aboven="2">Segredo</add>   </subst> de Tse-i-la</rs>. </item>

Both substitutions are marked up with the element <subst> containing an element <del> for the deleted part and and element <add> for the added part. In both cases, the deleted words are marked as belonging to the first edited version of the document (n with 1) while the added words are part of the second version (n with 2). The first deletion is rendered as rend overwritten and the second as overstrike. In the first substitution, the new letter is added directly on top of the deleted one, so the element <add> needs no additional attribute place saying where the addition was made. In the second substitution, the addition was made above the previous word, so <add> has an attribute place with the value above.

An example of the second case (something is replaced without deleting the first option) can be seen in the following facsimile:

Here, in the list item with the number 6, there is the title "Le Gardien des Troupeaux", to which an alternative is added resulting in "Le Gardien de Troupeaux". The encoding of this alternative is shown in the following:

<item>  <label>6.</label>  <rs type="titlekey="T69">   <choice>    <abbr>     <metamark rend="line-14"      function="ditto"/>    </abbr>    <expan>Traducção de <rs type="namekey="ACrole="author">Alberto          Caeiro</rs>    </expan>   </choice><rs type="workkey="W81">    <rs type="workkey="W24">     <rs type="titlekey="T101">      <rs type="titlekey="T29">       <hi rend="underline">Le Gardien d<choice>         <seg n="1">es</seg>         <seg n="2">          <add place="above">e</add>         </seg>        </choice>              Troupeaux</hi>      </rs>     </rs>    </rs>   </rs>  </rs> </item>

Because the change is actually only applied to the word "des", the element <choice> is only used on this word, more specifically on its last two characters "es", which are changed just to "e". The element <choice> contains two segments, <seg> 1 and <seg> 2, one for each version of the word. The first version is marked with n = 1 and the last version with n = 2. Furthermore, the last version is encoded as an addition using <add> inside of the second segment. Also, the place of the addition is indicated in place, which has the value above.

4.1.4.3. Transpositions

A transposition means that a passage of text should be moved to another position, but the result of this process is not visible in the document. Instead, some metamark (e.g. an arrow, a line, or numbers) indicates which elements should be transposed (see the TEI guidelines for more information). In this edition, the metamark indicating the transposition is included in the diplomatic transcription. In the first edited version of the text, the passages are shown as they were originally and in the second edited version, the result of the transposition is given. An example of a transposition can be found in the document BNP/E3 93-56r, as shown in the following facsimile:

On the lower part of the page, there is a list with five items. The second list item has three lines, of which the second one has a transposition. A line indicates that the two words "poemas bons" should be transposed to "bons poemas". In TEI, this is encoded as follows:

<item>os <metamark rend="lineplace="above"   function="transpositiontarget="#S1 #S2n="2"/>  <seg xml:id="S1">poemas</seg>  <seg xml:id="S2">bons</seg> de <rs type="namekey="P87">Edgar    Poe</rs>. </item>

The element <metamark> with the attribute function and its value transposition is used to represent the sign that indicates the transposition, in this case a line (so that the attribute rend has the value arrow). The attribute place indicates where the metamark is placed in relationship to the elements that should be transposed. Here the value above is given, although the line actually starts above the first word and ends below the second, so this is a simplification. As a rule of thumb, the place where the metamark starts should be indicated in the place attribute. The attribute target of the <metamark> element serves to point to the elements which should be transposed. The pointers are the values of the identifiers of those elements, preceded by the sign '#' and separated by a space. In this case, the two elements with the identifiers S1 and S2 should be transposed. The order of the two identifiers is the one that the elements have in their original position (so "poemas" = S1 before "bons" = S2). Finally, the attribute n with the value 2 means that the transposition should only be realized in the second version of the text. The two elements that should be transposed directly follow the <metamark> element. Here, these are to <seg> elements, one for each word, and they have the identifiers S1 and S2 as values of the attribute xml:id.

Another example of a transposition can be found in the document CP 786. In that case not two words are transposed but two rows of a table, as can be seen in the following facsimile:

Here the second and third rows with the text "Spell" and "Carta ao Author de Sachá" should be transposed. In TEI, this is encoded as follows:

<metamark rend="arrowplace="left"  function="transpositiontarget="#R1 #R2n="2"/> <row xml:id="R1">  <cell>   <rs type="workkey="O1-34">    <rs type="title">Spell</rs>   </rs>  </cell>  <cell></cell>  <cell rend="right">89</cell>  <cell>(p. 150)</cell> </row> <row xml:id="R2">  <cell>   <rs type="title">Carta ao Author de Sachá</rs>  </cell>  <cell></cell>  <cell rend="right">98</cell>  <cell>(p. 93)</cell> </row>

As in the case of the example with two words, also for the two table rows the element <metamark> with an attribute function and its value transposition holds the sign that indicates that the two table rows should be transposed. Also here, it is a curved line starting at the beginning of the word "Spell" and ending at "Author" on the next line. To simplify this, the attribute place of <metamark> has the value left, which means that the sign is placed on the left side of the table rows. What should be transposed is indicated in the attribute target, by giving the identifiers of the corresponding elements, in this case the identifiers of the two table rows (R1 and R2). The two <row> elements that should be transposed directly follow the <metamark> element.

4.1.4.4. Deletions

Deletions can be sections of text that are visibly struck through or typed over by Pessoa. The following facsimile contains an example of a deletion:

On the right page, below the heading "Um grande poeta materialista (Alberto Caeiro)", there is a phrase "A enthusiastica all" which is struck through. This is encoded as follows:

<head>  <hi rend="underline">   <rs type="workkey="W25">    <rs type="titlekey="T31">Um grande poeta materialista</rs>    <lb/>      (<rs type="namekey="ACrole="topic">Alberto        Caeiro</rs>)</rs>  </hi> </head> <p>  <del rend="overstrike">A enthusiasthica all</del> </p>

To mark deletions, the element <del> is used in combination with the attribute rend, which here has the value overstrike. Other possible values are overtyped (when the document is not handwritten but typed) and overwritten (when the text is overwritten with new text instead of using a line to strike it through). In the current example, the deletion is interpreted as already belonging to the first version of the document. It does therefore not have an attribute n with a value 2, which would mark that the deletion was made only for the final version of the document.

4.1.4.4.1. Deletion of longer passages of text

In some cases not just a few characters or words are deleted, but longer passages of text, for example several list items or a whole list. This is the case in the list BNP 144A-37v, as can be seen in the following image:

Here, the whole list is deleted. This cannot be encoded with the element <del> because that element is not allowed to hold entire lists. The solution is shown in the following code example:

<delSpan rend="overstrikespanTo="#A2"/> <list>  <item>   <hi rend="underline">    <rs type="namekey="P223">Constantine Dix</rs>.</hi>  </item>  <item>   <hi rend="underline">    <rs type="title">     <rs type="namekey="P87">Poe's</rs>        Poems</rs>   </hi>.</item> </list> <gap reason="selectionunit="line"  extent="10"/> <anchor xml:id="A2"/>

The element <delSpan> is used to mark the beginning of the passage that should be deleted. It is an empty element which closes directly. How the deletion should be rendered is indicated in the attribute rend, which has the value overstrike here. The element <delSpan> has another attribute spanTo which points to another element with the identifier "A2". That it is a pointer is marked with the sign "#", so the value of the attribute is #A2. This other element servers to mark the end of the deleted passage. It is encoded with the element <anchor> and has the attribute xml:id with the value A2. The <anchor> element is also empty.

4.1.4.5. Other modifications

In some cases, it is not text that is added, but graphical elements. For example, words can be modified by underlining them or drawing a circle around them. An example is shown in the following facsimile of the list BNP 133M-30r:

On this list, the text "(Advertise for Cipher Agency - America)." is highlighted by a frame which Pessoa added later.

The TEI element <add> is not suitable to encode such modifications. Instead, the more general element <mod> is used, as in the following code snippet:

<item>  <mod rend="framedn="2">(Advertise for Cipher Agency — <lb/>    America).</mod> </item>

The element <mod> surrounds the text to be framed. The attribute rend indicates how it should be modified, here by adding a frame (framed). The attribute n with the value 2 indicates that the modification was only done later and should be part of the second edited version of the document.

4.1.5. Editorial interventions

For some aspects of the text on the documents, the editor may decide to give more information on the transcribed text, for example to indicate how abbreviations would be expanded, that there is a gap in the text and how it could be filled. It should also be marked if the editor decides to only transcribe some part of the document, but not the whole one.

4.1.5.1. Expansion of abbreviations

The following example shows how abbreviations are encoded in the documents and how they can be expanded:

<item> — 2 idéas para o <rs type="title">   <choice>    <abbr>L<am>.</am> do        Des<am>.</am>    </abbr>    <expan>L<ex>ivro</ex> do        Des<ex>asocego</ex>    </expan>   </choice>  </rs> </item>

Here, there is a list item containing the title "Livro do Desasocego" in abbreviated form: "L. do Des.". To mark the difference between the abbreviated and expanded form, the element <choice> is used. Inside of it, first, the the abbreviated text is given in an element <abbr>. Inside of it, the text is transcribed as it appears on the document. The abbreviation signs, in this case dots, are marked up further with the element <am> ("abbreviation mark"). The expansion of the abbreviation is given in the element <expan>. Inside of this, the parts where abbreviation marks are replaced by text are given in elements <ex>. Otherwise the text of the abbreviation is repeated in the expansion, because the <choice> element says that just one of the versions will be displayed at a time.

4.1.5.1.1. Ditto

A special case of abbreviation expansion are subsequent items in a list that contain repetitions for which Pessoa used typographical marks as placeholders.

In the following facsimile, it can be seen that the sixth list item starts with a line:

This line indicates that the beginning of this list item corresponds with the beginning of the previous item number 5, i. e. "Trad. de...". The line is therefore interpreted as an abbreviation, which can be expanded to the text of the preceding list item. This is encoded as follows:

<item>  <label>5.</label>  <rs type="titlekey="T68">   <choice>    <abbr>Trad<am>.</am>    </abbr>    <expan>Trad<ex>ucção</ex>    </expan>   </choice> de <rs type="namekey="ACrole="author">    <choice>     <abbr>A<am>.</am>          C<am>.</am>     </abbr>     <expan>A<ex>lberto</ex>          C<ex>aeiro</ex>     </expan>    </choice>   </rs><rs type="workkey="W23">    <rs type="titlekey="T28">     <hi rend="underline">The Keeper of          Sheep</hi>    </rs>   </rs>  </rs> </item> <item>  <label>6.</label>  <rs type="titlekey="T69">   <choice>    <abbr>     <metamark rend="linefunction="ditto"/>    </abbr>    <expan>Traducção de <rs type="namekey="ACrole="author">Alberto          Caeiro</rs>    </expan>   </choice><rs type="workkey="W81">    <rs type="workkey="W24">     <rs type="titlekey="T101">      <rs type="titlekey="T29">       <hi rend="underline">Le Gardien d<choice>         <seg n="1">es</seg>         <seg n="2">          <add place="above">e</add>         </seg>        </choice>              Troupeaux</hi>      </rs>     </rs>    </rs>   </rs>  </rs> </item>

The line itself is encoded with the element <metamark>, using the attribute rend with the value line and the attribute function with the value ditto. The line is then marked as an abbreviation using <abbr>. It is expanded by using the element <choice> wrapped around the abbreviation and adding the element <expan> to include the text and mark-up that the line stands for: "Traducção de Alberto Caeiro".

Another example for "ditto" using quotation marks instead of lines is visible in the following page of the list BNP 133M-96-a-98:

In item 14, there are two subitems: 'Small book on Sh. - Bacon' and 'Larger " " " "', where the quotation marks are placeholders for the text of the previous item. This is encoded as follows:

<item rend="indent-2">  <label>14.</label>  <list rend="inline">   <item>Small book on <rs type="namekey="P65">     <choice>      <abbr>Sh</abbr>      <expan>Sh<ex>akespeare</ex>      </expan>     </choice>    </rs>      – Bacon.</item>   <item>Larger   <choice>     <abbr>      <metamark rend="quotes"       function="ditto"/>      <metamark rend="quotes"       function="ditto"/>      <metamark rend="quotes"       function="ditto"/>      <metamark rend="quotes"       function="ditto"/>     </abbr>     <expan>book on <rs type="namekey="P65">Shakespeare</rs> –          Bacon</expan>    </choice>   </item>  </list> </item>

The second item of the sublist contains an element <choice> with the child elements <abbr> and <expan>. The abbreviation holds the quotation marks with the function "ditto". Each quotatation mark is encoded as and <metamark> with the attributes rend with the value quotes and function with the value ditto. The expansion in the element <expan> then contains the repeated text that the quotation marks stand for.

4.1.5.2. Selections

In some cases not the whole content of a document is relevant for the edition, but only a certain part of it. Then the element <gap> can be used to mark such selections:

<list>[...] <item rend="indent-2">   <label>7.</label> Tentar <rs type="titlekey="T30">artigo no <rs type="periodicalkey="J6">     <hi rend="underline">Mercure de France</hi>    </rs>, sobre<lb/>    <rs type="namekey="ACrole="topic">Alberto        Caeiro</rs>   </rs>. </item> </list> <gap reason="selectionunit="line"  extent="3"/>

In the example, the list is transcribed up to the seventh item. On the document, there is more text below the list, but it was decided not to transcribe it. The element <gap> indicates that something was left out here. In the attribute reason, it is mentioned that the gap is due to selection (and not, for example, because the document is damaged or the text illegible). Also the extent of what was not transcribed should be indicated. This can be done using the attribute unit in combination with the attribute extent. The first one says what is counted and the latter how much of it was selected. In the example, the remaining lines were counted and three lines were not transcribed. Possible values for unit are character, word, and line. Possible values for extent are numbers.

4.1.5.3. Conjectural readings

Sometimes the editor is not sure how a passage should be read, but still wants to make a suggestion. Such conjectural readings are marked with the element <unclear>, as in the following example:

<item>- <rs type="namekey="P130">Bacon</rs>  <unclear reason="illegible">Books</unclear> </item>

Here the word "Books" could not be read with certainty. The attribute reason serves to explain why something was unclear, in this case because the word was illegible.

4.1.5.4. Gaps

One sort of gaps is when some text in a document is present, but could not be read by the editor. See for example the following facsimile of the document 144D2 9r:

At the end of the fourth list item, there is some text in parenthesis, beginning with "Fraça, Barrès.", but the third word, which was struck through, could not be read. It is therefore marked as a gap and encoded as follows:

<item>  <label>4.</label>  <rs type="title">O scepticismo    energico</rs>. (<rs type="place">França</rs>, <rs type="namekey="P366">Barrès</rs>. <del rend="overstrike">   <gap reason="illegibleextent="1"    unit="word"/>  </del>) </item>

The word that could not be read is not transcribed. Instead an element <gap> is added at the position of the illegible word. The <gap> element gets an attribute reason stating why there is a gap, in this case because the word is illegible. What and how much is illegible is indicated in the other two attributes: unit stating that it is a word and extent stating that just 1 word could not be read. In this specific example, the illegible word is also struck through. This is marked up by adding a <del> element around the <gap> element, with an attribute rend with the value overstrike.

Another kind of gap is, when the editor may wish to indicate that at some points in a document, some text is expected but is missing because the document was not finished or because the text was left out on purpose. An example of such a case is shown in the following:

<item>  <rs type="periodicalkey="J19">   <hi rend="underline">O      Mundo</hi>  </rs> - <seg type="anchor">ver se se obtem <rs type="namekey="P39">Santos-Vieira</rs>. <add place="below">(pelo lado anti-clerical <supplied resp="PS"     reason="omitted-in-original"/>)</add>  </seg> </item>

Here there is a list item containing the name of a periodical and a comment "ver se se obtem Santos-Vieira". An addition is made below this list item: "(pelo lado anti-clerical )". Because there is space between the last word of the addition and the closing parenthesis, the editor assumes that there should be more text. To mark this, the element <supplied> is used. It carries two attributes, the first one, resp, serves to indicate who made this intervention. As a value, it takes the initials of the responsible editor, in this case "PS" for "Pedro Sepúlveda". The second attribute is reason, explaining why something is supplied. Here it has the value omitted-in-original. In this example, the element <supplied> is empty because the editor does not know what the missing text is. In other cases, it is possible that the element <supplied> contains the text that is supposed to be there.

In another case, there is a list starting with a heading "Italian:", but no list items are added on the document. This is encoded by using the element <supplied> inside of an otherwise empty list item, as in the following encoding example:

<list>  <head>   <hi rend="underline">Italian:</hi>  </head>  <item>   <supplied reason="omitted-in-original"    resp="PS"/>  </item> </list>

4.2. Encoding of publications

4.3. Encoding of references (names, titles, periodicals, works, ...)

In the edition, references to several kinds of entities are encoded: to names, titles, periodicals, works, and collections. For all of these references, the element <rs> is used. In the attribute type, the kind of reference is given. This attribute can have the values name, title, periodical, work, or collection. The following example shows a heading of a document that is at the same time a reference to a title, which itself is the title of a collection of works:

<head>  <hi rend="underline">   <rs type="collectionkey="C16">    <rs type="titlekey="T184">Na Casa        de saude de Cascaes</rs>   </rs>  </hi> </head> [...]

Therefore, the text "Na Casa de saude de Cascaes" is wrapped with two <rs> elements, one to say that it is a reference to a title and the other to state that the title is a reference to a collection of works. In both cases, also the key attribute is used. It serves to identify the entity which is referenced. Each type of entity has an own type of key. Titles, for example, have keys beginning with "T", followed by a number. Collections have a key beginning with "C". Names have keys beginning with "P" (for person name), periodicals with "J" (for journal) and works with "W". Possible values for the keys are to be found in external lists of the entities. A special case are references to the main heteronyms. Although these are references to names, the keys do not begin with "P" in these cases (as for all other person names), but specific keys for the heteronyms are used ("FP", "AC", "AdC", "RR", "BS").

In the next example, a reference to a work title is given:

<item>  <label>(2)</label>  <rs type="workkey="W32">   <rs type="titlekey="T48">    <rs type="namekey="ACrole="author">Alberto        Caeiro</rs>   </rs>  </rs> </item>

Here, the title is a name of a heteronym ("Alberto Caeiro"), used as a placeholder for the work of this heteronym. First the reference to the name is marked using the element <rs> with the attribute type and the value name. The key for Alberto Caeiro is AC.

Also, it is important to note that references to the main heteronyms (Fernando Pessoa, Alberto Caeiro, Álvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis, and Bernardo Soares) are further marked up by indicating the role that they have in the reference. In the example, Alberto Caeiro is mentioned as an author, so the attribute role is used on <rs> with the value author. The available values for role are: author, editor, translator, and topic.

Next, the reference to the title is marked with <rs> and type with the value title and a key giving the title idenfier T48. Then another element <rs> is used around the first one to indicate that this is a work reference (with type work) and to which work (with key W32).

4.3.1. Roles of name references

References to the main heteronyms (Fernando Pessoa, Alberto Caeiro, Álvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis, and Bernardo Soares) are further marked up by indicating the role that they have in the reference. For this purpose, the attribute role is used on <rs>. The available values for role are: author, editor, translator, and topic. Most often, names are mentioned as authors, but there are also cases where a name is mentioned as part of a topic, as in the following example:

<head>  <rs type="title">   <hi rend="underline">Vida e obras do engenheiro<lb/>    <rs type="namekey="AdCrole="topic">Alvaro de        Campos</rs>   </hi>  </rs>. </head>

Here, Álvaro de Campos occurs inside of a title reference and is the topic of the work.

In the next example, a heteronym is mentioned in the role of editor:

<head>  <hi rend="underline">   <rs type="title">Livro do      Desassocego</rs>.</hi> </head> <ab>escripto por <rs type="namekey="P62">Vicente Guedes,<lb/>  </rs> publicado por <rs type="namekey="FProle="editor"   style="b">Fernando<lb/>    Pessoa</rs>.</ab>

Here Fernando Pessoa is mentioned as the editor of "Livro do Desassocego" and the reference to his name is therefore marked with role editor. As the author, Vicente Guedes is mentioned, but as this is not one of the main heteronyms, no role is indicated in the name reference in that case.

4.3.2. Styles of name references

Another aspect of the encoding of rerences is the "style" of the reference. "Style" means that a certain way of spelling a reference is used. In the following example, the name "Antonio Mora" is given without any accent. This is marked as "style b", using the attribute style on the element <rs>, giving it the value b. In the case of Antonio Mora, the style a is "Antonio Móra" with an accent.

<item rend="indent-2">  <label>(4)</label>  <rs type="title">“Prolegomenos”</rs> de <rs type="namekey="P1style="b">Antonio<lb/> Mora</rs>. </item>

For which names there are different styles available is defined in the external list of names. If a name has different styles, the attribute style should always be used in the encoding to indicate which of the styles is used in the document that is transcribed.

Appendix A TEI Specifications

This TEI Customization uses the modules core, tei, header, textstructure, msdescription, transcr, analysis, linking, figures and certainty.

Appendix A.1 Elements

Appendix A.1.1 <TEI>

<TEI> (TEI document) contains a single TEI-conformant document, combining a single TEI header with one or more members of the model.resource class. Multiple <TEI> elements may be combined within a <TEI> (or <teiCorpus>) element. [4. Default Text Structure 15.1. Varieties of Composite Text]
Module textstructure
Attributes Attributes  att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.global.source (@source)
Contained by
textstructure: TEI
May contain
header: teiHeader
linking: standOff
textstructure: TEI text
transcr: facsimile
Note

This element is required. It is customary to specify the TEI namespace http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0 on it, using the xmlns attribute.

Example
<TEI version="3.3.0" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>The shortest TEI Document Imaginable</title>    </titleStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <p>First published as part of TEI P2, this is the P5          version using a name space.</p>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>  </teiHeader>  <text>   <body>    <p>This is about the shortest TEI document imaginable.</p>   </body>  </text> </TEI>
Example
<TEI version="2.9.1" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>A TEI Document containing four page images </title>    </titleStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <p>Unpublished demonstration file.</p>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>  </teiHeader>  <facsimile>   <graphic url="page1.png"/>   <graphic url="page2.png"/>   <graphic url="page3.png"/>   <graphic url="page4.png"/>  </facsimile> </TEI>
Schematron
<sch:ns prefix="tei"  uri="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0"/> <sch:ns prefix="xs"  uri="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"/>
Schematron
<sch:ns prefix="rng"  uri="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"/>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <elementRef key="teiHeader"/>
  <alternate minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
   <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
    <classRef key="model.resource"
     minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    <elementRef key="TEI" minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
   </sequence>
   <elementRef key="TEI" minOccurs="1"
    maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </alternate>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element TEI
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   tei_att.typed.attributes,
   ( tei_teiHeader, ( ( tei_model.resource+, tei_TEI* ) | tei_TEI+ ) )
}

Appendix A.1.2 <ab>

<ab> (anonymous block) contains any arbitrary component-level unit of text, acting as an anonymous container for phrase or inter level elements analogous to, but without the semantic baggage of, a paragraph. [16.3. Blocks, Segments, and Anchors]
Module linking
Attributes Attributes  att.written (@hand) att.global.source (@source)
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
border
center
indent
offset
position-center
right
small
type characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived from att.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
dedication
formula
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
figures: table
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: msDesc origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Note

The <ab> element may be used at the encoder's discretion to mark any component-level elements in a text for which no other more specific appropriate markup is defined.

Example
<div type="bookn="Genesis">  <div type="chaptern="1">   <ab>In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.</ab>   <ab>And the earth was without form, and void; and      darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the      spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.</ab>   <ab>And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.</ab> <!-- ...-->  </div> </div>
Schematron
<s:report test="not(ancestor::tei:floatingText) and (ancestor::tei:p or ancestor::tei:ab) and not(parent::tei:exemplum |parent::tei:item |parent::tei:note |parent::tei:q |parent::tei:quote |parent::tei:remarks |parent::tei:said |parent::tei:sp |parent::tei:stage |parent::tei:cell |parent::tei:figure)"> Abstract model violation: ab may not occur inside paragraphs or other ab elements. </s:report>
Schematron
<s:report test="ancestor::tei:l or ancestor::tei:lg"> Abstract model violation: Lines may not contain higher-level divisions such as p or ab. </s:report>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element ab
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   tei_att.written.attributes,
   attribute rend
   {
      list
      {
         (
            "border"
          | "center"
          | "indent"
          | "offset"
          | "position-center"
          | "right"
          | "small"
         )+
      }
   }?,
   attribute type { "dedication" | "formula" }?,
   tei_macro.paraContent
}

Appendix A.1.3 <abbr>

<abbr> (abbreviation) contains an abbreviation of any sort. [3.5.5. Abbreviations and Their Expansions]
Module core
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Note

If abbreviations are expanded silently, this practice should be documented in the <editorialDecl>, either with a <normalization> element or a <p>.

Example
<choice>  <expan>North Atlantic Treaty Organization</expan>  <abbr cert="low">NorATO</abbr>  <abbr cert="high">NATO</abbr>  <abbr cert="highxml:lang="fr">OTAN</abbr> </choice>
Example
<choice>  <abbr>SPQR</abbr>  <expan>senatus populusque romanorum</expan> </choice>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element abbr { tei_macro.phraseSeq }

Appendix A.1.4 <add>

<add> (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the source text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector. [3.4.3. Additions, Deletions, and Omissions]
Module core
Attributes Attributes
n (number) gives a number (or other label) for an element, which is not necessarily unique within the document.
Derived from att.global
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.text
Legal values are:
1
2
place specifies where this item is placed.
Derived from att.placement
Status Recommended
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.enumerated separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
above
below
after
margin-left
margin-right
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
figures: table
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: msDesc origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Note

In a diplomatic edition attempting to represent an original source, the <add> element should not be used for additions to the current TEI electronic edition made by editors or encoders. In these cases, either the <corr> or <supplied> element are recommended.

In a TEI edition of a historical text with previous editorial emendations in which such additions or reconstructions are considered part of the source text, the use of <add> may be appropriate, dependent on the editorial philosophy of the project.

Example
The story I am going to relate is true as to its main facts, and as to the consequences <add place="above">of these facts</add> from which this tale takes its title.
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element add
{
   attribute n { "1" | "2" }?,
   attribute place
   {
      list
      {
         ( "above" | "below" | "after" | "margin-left" | "margin-right" )+
      }
   }?,
   tei_macro.paraContent
}

Appendix A.1.5 <addSpan>

<addSpan> (added span of text) marks the beginning of a longer sequence of text added by an author, scribe, annotator or corrector (see also <add>). [11.3.1.4. Additions and Deletions]
Module transcr
Attributes Attributes  att.spanning (@spanTo) att.global (xml:id, xml:lang, xml:base, xml:space, @n)
Member of
Contained by
May contain Empty element
Note

Both the beginning and the end of the added material must be marked; the beginning by the <addSpan> element itself, the end by the spanTo attribute.

Example
<handNote xml:id="HEOL"  scribe="HelgiÓlafsson"/> <!-- ... --> <body>  <div> <!-- text here -->  </div>  <addSpan n="added_gatheringhand="#HEOL"   spanTo="#P025"/>  <div> <!-- text of first added poem here -->  </div>  <div> <!-- text of second added poem here -->  </div>  <div> <!-- text of third added poem here -->  </div>  <div> <!-- text of fourth added poem here -->  </div>  <anchor xml:id="P025"/>  <div> <!-- more text here -->  </div> </body>
Schematron
<sch:assert test="@spanTo">The @spanTo attribute of <sch:name/> is required.</sch:assert>
Schematron
<sch:assert test="@spanTo">L'attribut spanTo est requis.</sch:assert>
Content model
<content>
 <empty/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element addSpan
{
   tei_att.global.attribute.n,
   tei_att.spanning.attributes,
   empty
}

Appendix A.1.6 <am>

<am> (abbreviation marker) contains a sequence of letters or signs present in an abbreviation which are omitted or replaced in the expanded form of the abbreviation. [11.3.1.2. Abbreviation and Expansion]
Module transcr
Member of
Contained by
May contain
character data
Example
do you <abbr>Mr<am>.</am> </abbr> Jones?
Example
<choice>  <abbr>Aug<am>g</am>  </abbr>  <expan>Aug<ex>ustorum duo</ex>  </expan> </choice>
Example
<abbr>eu<am>   <g ref="#b-er"/>  </am>y</abbr> <abbr>  <am>   <g ref="#b-per"/>  </am>sone </abbr> ...
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.transcriptional"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element am { ( text | tei_model.gLike | tei_model.pPart.transcriptional )* }

Appendix A.1.7 <analytic>

<analytic> (analytic level) contains bibliographic elements describing an item (e.g. an article or poem) published within a monograph or journal and not as an independent publication. [3.11.2.1. Analytic, Monographic, and Series Levels]
Module core
Contained by
core: biblStruct
May contain
Note

May contain titles and statements of responsibility (author, editor, or other), in any order.

The <analytic> element may only occur within a <biblStruct>, where its use is mandatory for the description of an analytic level bibliographic item.

Example
<biblStruct>  <analytic>   <author>Chesnutt, David</author>   <title>Historical Editions in the States</title>  </analytic>  <monogr>   <title level="j">Computers and the Humanities</title>   <imprint>    <date when="1991-12">(December, 1991):</date>   </imprint>   <biblScope>25.6</biblScope>   <biblScope>377–380</biblScope>  </monogr> </biblStruct>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <elementRef key="author"/>
  <elementRef key="editor"/>
  <elementRef key="respStmt"/>
  <elementRef key="title"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <elementRef key="date"/>
  <elementRef key="textLang"/>
  <elementRef key="idno"/>
  <elementRef key="availability"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element analytic
{
   (
      tei_author
    | editor
    | tei_respStmt
    | tei_title
    | tei_model.ptrLike
    | tei_date
    | tei_textLang
    | tei_idno
    | tei_availability
   )*
}

Appendix A.1.8 <anchor>

<anchor> (anchor point) attaches an identifier to a point within a text, whether or not it corresponds with a textual element. [8.4.2. Synchronization and Overlap 16.5. Correspondence and Alignment]
Module linking
Attributes Attributesatt.global (n, xml:lang, xml:base, xml:space, @xml:id) att.global.source (@source)
type characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived from att.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
delSpanAnchor
Member of
Contained by
May contain Empty element
Note

On this element, the global xml:id attribute must be supplied to specify an identifier for the point at which this element occurs within a document. The value used may be chosen freely provided that it is unique within the document and is a syntactically valid name. There is no requirement for values containing numbers to be in sequence.

Example
<s>The anchor is he<anchor xml:id="A234"/>re somewhere.</s> <s>Help me find it.<ptr target="#A234"/> </s>
Content model
<content>
 <empty/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element anchor
{
   tei_att.global.attribute.xmlid,
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   attribute type { "delSpanAnchor" }?,
   empty
}

Appendix A.1.9 <app>

<app> (apparatus entry) contains one entry in a critical apparatus, with an optional lemma and usually one or more readings or notes on the relevant passage. [12.1.1. The Apparatus Entry]
Module textcrit
Member of
Contained by
May contain
core: note
textcrit: lem rdg
Example
<app>  <lem wit="#El #Hg">Experience</lem>  <rdg wit="#Latype="substantive">Experiment</rdg>  <rdg wit="#Ra2type="substantive">Eryment</rdg> </app>
Example
<app type="substantive">  <rdgGrp type="subvariants">   <lem wit="#El #Hg">Experience</lem>   <rdg wit="#Ha4">Experiens</rdg>  </rdgGrp>  <rdgGrp type="subvariants">   <lem wit="#Cp #Ld1">Experiment</lem>   <rdg wit="#La">Ex<g ref="#per"/>iment</rdg>  </rdgGrp>  <rdgGrp type="subvariants">   <lem resp="#ed2013">Eriment</lem>   <rdg wit="#Ra2">Eryment</rdg>  </rdgGrp> </app>
Example
<app loc="1">  <rdg resp="#SEG">TIMΩΔA</rdg> </app>
Example
<app loc="1-6">  <note>Too badly worn to yield a text</note> </app>
Example
<choice xml:id="choice3">  <reg>σύμπαντα</reg>  <orig>ΣΙΝΠΑΤΑΝ</orig> </choice> <!-- ... --> <app from="#choice3">  <note>Mommsen's fanciful normalization, reproduced here, has not been accepted by all recent editions</note> </app>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <elementRef key="lem" minOccurs="0"/>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.rdgLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.noteLike"/>
   <elementRef key="witDetail"/>
   <elementRef key="wit"/>
   <elementRef key="rdgGrp"/>
  </alternate>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element app
{
   tei_lem?,
   ( tei_model.rdgLike | tei_model.noteLike | witDetail | wit | rdgGrp )*
}

Appendix A.1.10 <argument>

<argument> contains a formal list or prose description of the topics addressed by a subdivision of a text. [4.2. Elements Common to All Divisions 4.6. Title Pages]
Module textstructure
Attributes Attributes
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
center
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: table
textstructure: back body div front opener titlePage
May contain
certainty: certainty
figures: table
linking: ab anchor
msdescription: msDesc
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
Example
<argument>  <p>Monte Video — Maldonado — Excursion    to R Polanco — Lazo and Bolas — Partridges —    Absence of Trees — Deer — Capybara, or River Hog —    Tucutuco — Molothrus, cuckoo-like habits — Tyrant    Flycatcher — Mocking-bird — Carrion Hawks —    Tubes formed by Lightning — House struck</p> </argument>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
   <classRef key="model.headLike"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.common"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element argument
{
   attribute rend { list { "center"+ } }?,
   (
      ( tei_model.global | tei_model.headLike )*,
      ( tei_model.common, tei_model.global* )+
   )
}

Appendix A.1.11 <author>

<author> in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of an author, personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority. [3.11.2.2. Titles, Authors, and Editors 2.2.1. The Title Statement]
Module core
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
Member of
Contained by
header: titleStmt
msdescription: msItemStruct
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Note

Particularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use a generally recognized name authority file to supply the content for this element. The attributes key or ref may also be used to reference canonical information about the author(s) intended from any appropriate authority, such as a library catalogue or online resource.

In the case of a broadcast, use this element for the name of the company or network responsible for making the broadcast.

Where an author is unknown or unspecified, this element may contain text such as Unknown or Anonymous. When the appropriate TEI modules are in use, it may also contain detailed tagging of the names used for people, organizations or places, in particular where multiple names are given.

Example
<author>British Broadcasting Corporation</author> <author>La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de (1634–1693)</author> <author>Anonymous</author> <author>Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation</author> <author>  <persName>Beaumont, Francis</persName> and <persName>John Fletcher</persName> </author> <author>  <orgName key="BBC">British Broadcasting    Corporation</orgName>: Radio 3 Network </author>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element author { tei_att.global.source.attribute.source, tei_macro.phraseSeq }

Appendix A.1.12 <availability>

<availability> supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, any licence applying to it, etc. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Module header
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
status supplies a code identifying the current availability of the text.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
free
unknown
restricted
Member of
Contained by
May contain
core: p
header: licence
linking: ab
Note

A consistent format should be adopted

Example
<availability status="restricted">  <p>Available for academic research purposes only.</p> </availability> <availability status="free">  <p>In the public domain</p> </availability> <availability status="restricted">  <p>Available under licence from the publishers.</p> </availability>
Example
<availability>  <licence target="http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT">   <p>The MIT License      applies to this document.</p>   <p>Copyright (C) 2011 by The University of Victoria</p>   <p>Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy      of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal      in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights      to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell      copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is      furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:</p>   <p>The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in      all copies or substantial portions of the Software.</p>   <p>THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR      IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,      FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE      AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER      LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,      OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN      THE SOFTWARE.</p>  </licence> </availability>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.availabilityPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element availability
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   attribute status { "free" | "unknown" | "restricted" },
   ( tei_model.availabilityPart | tei_model.pLike )+
}

Appendix A.1.13 <back>

<back> (back matter) contains any appendixes, etc. following the main part of a text. [4.7. Back Matter 4. Default Text Structure]
Module textstructure
Contained by
textstructure: floatingText text
transcr: facsimile
May contain
Note

Because cultural conventions differ as to which elements are grouped as back matter and which as front matter, the content models for the <back> and <front> elements are identical.

Example
<back>  <div type="appendix">   <head>The Golden Dream or, the Ingenuous Confession</head>   <p>TO shew the Depravity of human Nature, and how apt the Mind is to be misled by Trinkets      and false Appearances, Mrs. Two-Shoes does acknowledge, that after she became rich, she      had like to have been, too fond of Money <!-- .... -->   </p>  </div> <!-- ... -->  <div type="epistle">   <head>A letter from the Printer, which he desires may be inserted</head>   <salute>Sir.</salute>   <p>I have done with your Copy, so you may return it to the Vatican, if you please;    <!-- ... -->   </p>  </div>  <div type="advert">   <head>The Books usually read by the Scholars of Mrs Two-Shoes are these and are sold at Mr      Newbery's at the Bible and Sun in St Paul's Church-yard.</head>   <list>    <item n="1">The Christmas Box, Price 1d.</item>    <item n="2">The History of Giles Gingerbread, 1d.</item> <!-- ... -->    <item n="42">A Curious Collection of Travels, selected from the Writers of all Nations,        10 Vol, Pr. bound 1l.</item>   </list>  </div>  <div type="advert">   <head>By the KING's Royal Patent, Are sold by J. NEWBERY, at the Bible and Sun in St.      Paul's Church-Yard.</head>   <list>    <item n="1">Dr. James's Powders for Fevers, the Small-Pox, Measles, Colds, &amp;c. 2s.        6d</item>    <item n="2">Dr. Hooper's Female Pills, 1s.</item> <!-- ... -->   </list>  </div> </back>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike.front"/>
   <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.listLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <alternate minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
   <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
    <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
     <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
    <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.frontPart"/>
     <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
   <classRef key="model.divBottomPart"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.divBottomPart"/>
    <classRef key="model.global"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element back
{
   (
      tei_model.frontPart
    | tei_model.pLike.front
    | tei_model.pLike
    | tei_model.listLike
    | tei_model.global
   )*,
   (
      (
         tei_model.div1Like,
         ( tei_model.frontPart | tei_model.div1Like | tei_model.global )*
      )
    | (
         tei_model.divLike,
         ( tei_model.frontPart | tei_model.divLike | tei_model.global )*
      )
   )?,
   ( tei_model.divBottomPart, ( tei_model.divBottomPart | tei_model.global )* )?
}

Appendix A.1.14 <bibl>

<bibl> (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged. [3.11.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Module core
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
right
indent-second
center
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

Contains phrase-level elements, together with any combination of elements from the model.biblPart class

Example
<bibl>Blain, Clements and Grundy: Feminist Companion to Literature in English (Yale, 1990)</bibl>
Example
<bibl>  <title level="a">The Interesting story of the Children in the Wood</title>. In <author>Victor E Neuberg</author>, <title>The Penny Histories</title>. <publisher>OUP</publisher>  <date>1968</date>. </bibl>
Example
<bibl type="articlesubtype="book_chapter"  xml:id="carlin_2003">  <author>   <name>    <surname>Carlin</surname>      (<forename>Claire</forename>)</name>  </author>, <title level="a">The Staging of Impotence : France’s last    congrès</title> dans <bibl type="monogr">   <title level="m">Theatrum mundi : studies in honor of Ronald W.      Tobin</title>, éd.  <editor>    <name>     <forename>Claire</forename>     <surname>Carlin</surname>    </name>   </editor> et  <editor>    <name>     <forename>Kathleen</forename>     <surname>Wine</surname>    </name>   </editor>,  <pubPlace>Charlottesville, Va.</pubPlace>,  <publisher>Rookwood Press</publisher>,  <date when="2003">2003</date>.  </bibl> </bibl>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.highlighted"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.data"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.edit"/>
  <classRef key="model.segLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.biblPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element bibl
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   attribute rend { list { ( "right" | "indent-second" | "center" )+ } }?,
   (
      text
    | tei_model.gLike
    | tei_model.highlighted
    | tei_model.pPart.data
    | tei_model.pPart.edit
    | tei_model.segLike
    | tei_model.ptrLike
    | tei_model.biblPart
    | tei_model.global
   )*
}

Appendix A.1.15 <biblScope>

<biblScope> (scope of bibliographic reference) defines the scope of a bibliographic reference, for example as a list of page numbers, or a named subdivision of a larger work. [3.11.2.5. Scopes and Ranges in Bibliographic Citations]
Module core
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
unit identifies the unit of information conveyed by the element, e.g. columns, pages, volume, entry.
Derived from att.citing
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
issue
page
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Note

When a single page is being cited, use the from and to attributes with an identical value. When no clear endpoint is provided, the from attribute may be used without to; for example a citation such as ‘p. 3ff’ might be encoded <biblScope from="3">p. 3ff<biblScope>.

It is now considered good practice to supply this element as a sibling (rather than a child) of <imprint>, since it supplies information which does not constitute part of the imprint.

Example
<biblScope>pp 12–34</biblScope> <biblScope unit="pagefrom="12to="34"/> <biblScope unit="volume">II</biblScope> <biblScope unit="page">12</biblScope>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element biblScope
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   attribute unit { text }?,
   tei_macro.phraseSeq
}

Appendix A.1.16 <biblStruct>

<biblStruct> (structured bibliographic citation) contains a structured bibliographic citation, in which only bibliographic sub-elements appear and in a specified order. [3.11.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Module core
Attributes Attributes  att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.docStatus (@status)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<biblStruct>  <monogr>   <author>Blain, Virginia</author>   <author>Clements, Patricia</author>   <author>Grundy, Isobel</author>   <title>The Feminist Companion to Literature in English: women writers from the middle ages      to the present</title>   <edition>first edition</edition>   <imprint>    <publisher>Yale University Press</publisher>    <pubPlace>New Haven and London</pubPlace>    <date>1990</date>   </imprint>  </monogr> </biblStruct>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="analytic" minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <elementRef key="monogr"/>
   <elementRef key="series" minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.noteLike"/>
   <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
   <elementRef key="relatedItem"/>
   <elementRef key="citedRange"/>
  </alternate>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element biblStruct
{
   tei_att.global.attributes,
   tei_att.declarable.attributes,
   tei_att.typed.attributes,
   tei_att.sortable.attributes,
   tei_att.docStatus.attributes,
   (
      tei_analytic*,
      ( tei_monogr, series* )+,
      ( tei_model.noteLike | tei_model.ptrLike | relatedItem | citedRange )*
   )
}

Appendix A.1.17 <body>

<body> (text body) contains the whole body of a single unitary text, excluding any front or back matter. [4. Default Text Structure]
Module textstructure
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
Contained by
textstructure: floatingText text
May contain
Example
<body>  <l>Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard</l>  <l>metudæs maecti end his modgidanc</l>  <l>uerc uuldurfadur sue he uundra gihuaes</l>  <l>eci dryctin or astelidæ</l>  <l>he aerist scop aelda barnum</l>  <l>heben til hrofe haleg scepen.</l>  <l>tha middungeard moncynnæs uard</l>  <l>eci dryctin æfter tiadæ</l>  <l>firum foldu frea allmectig</l>  <trailer>primo cantauit Cædmon istud carmen.</trailer> </body>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <classRef key="model.global"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
   <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.global"/>
    <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
  <sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
   <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
   <alternate minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.global"/>
    <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
   </alternate>
  </sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
   <sequence minOccurs="1"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
     <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence minOccurs="1"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
    <alternate minOccurs="0"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.global"/>
     <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
   <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
    <sequence minOccurs="1"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <classRef key="model.common"/>
     <classRef key="model.global"
      minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    </sequence>
    <alternate minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
      <alternate minOccurs="0"
       maxOccurs="unbounded">
       <classRef key="model.global"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
     </sequence>
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <classRef key="model.div1Like"/>
      <alternate minOccurs="0"
       maxOccurs="unbounded">
       <classRef key="model.global"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
     </sequence>
    </alternate>
   </sequence>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element body
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   (
      tei_model.global*,
      ( tei_model.divTop, ( tei_model.global | tei_model.divTop )* )?,
      ( tei_model.divGenLike, ( tei_model.global | tei_model.divGenLike )* )?,
      (
         ( tei_model.divLike, ( tei_model.global | tei_model.divGenLike )* )+
       | ( tei_model.div1Like, ( tei_model.global | tei_model.divGenLike )* )+
       | (
            ( tei_model.common, tei_model.global* )+,
            (
               (
                  tei_model.divLike,
                  ( tei_model.global | tei_model.divGenLike )*
               )+
             | (
                  tei_model.div1Like,
                  ( tei_model.global | tei_model.divGenLike )*
               )+
            )?
         )
      ),
      ( tei_model.divBottom, tei_model.global* )*
   )
}

Appendix A.1.18 <cell>

<cell> contains one cell of a table. [14.1.1. TEI Tables]
Module figures
Attributes Attributesatt.global (n, xml:lang, xml:base, xml:space, @xml:id) att.global.source (@source) att.tableDecoration (role, @rows, @cols)
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
center
indent-2
right
vertical-middle
Contained by
figures: row
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
figures: table
header: idno
linking: ab anchor seg
msdescription: msDesc origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Example
<row>  <cell role="label">General conduct</cell>  <cell role="data">Not satisfactory, on account of his great unpunctuality    and inattention to duties</cell> </row>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element cell
{
   tei_att.global.attribute.xmlid,
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   tei_att.tableDecoration.attribute.rows,
   tei_att.tableDecoration.attribute.cols,
   attribute rend
   {
      list { ( "center" | "indent-2" | "right" | "vertical-middle" )+ }
   }?,
   tei_macro.specialPara
}

Appendix A.1.19 <certainty>

<certainty> indicates the degree of certainty associated with some aspect of the text markup. [21.1.2. Structured Indications of Uncertainty]
Module certainty
Attributes Attributesatt.global.responsibility (cert, @resp)
locus indicates more exactly the aspect concerning which certainty is being expressed: specifically, whether the markup is correctly located, whether the correct element or attribute name has been used, or whether the content of the element or attribute is correct, etc.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
name
uncertainty concerns whether the name of the element or attribute used is correctly applied.
start
uncertainty concerns whether the start of the element is correctly identified.
end
uncertainty concerns whether the end of the element is correctly identified.
location
uncertainty concerns both the start and the end of the element.
value
uncertainty concerns the content (for an element) or the value (for an attribute)
degree indicates the degree of confidence assigned to the aspect of the markup named by the locus attribute.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.probability
Member of
Contained by
May contain
certainty: certainty
Example (For discussion of this example, see section [[undefined CEconcon]])
Ernest went to <anchor xml:id="A1"/> old <persName xml:id="SYB">Saybrook</persName>. <certainty xml:id="c1target="#SYB"  locus="namedegree="0.6"/> <certainty target="#SYBlocus="start"  given="#c1degree="0.9"/> <certainty xml:id="C-c2target="#SYB"  locus="nameassertedValue="persNamedegree="0.4"/> <certainty target="#SYBlocus="start"  given="#C-c2degree="0.5"/> <certainty target="#SYBlocus="start"  assertedValue="#a1given="#c1degree="0.5"/>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.descLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.certLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element certainty
{
   tei_att.global.responsibility.attribute.resp,
   attribute locus { "name" | "start" | "end" | "location" | "value" },
   attribute degree { text }?,
   ( tei_model.descLike | tei_model.certLike )*
}

Appendix A.1.20 <choice>

<choice> groups a number of alternative encodings for the same point in a text. [3.4. Simple Editorial Changes]
Module core
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
linking: seg
transcr: am ex supplied
Note

Because the children of a <choice> element all represent alternative ways of encoding the same sequence, it is natural to think of them as mutually exclusive. However, there may be cases where a full representation of a text requires the alternative encodings to be considered as parallel.

Note also that <choice> elements may self-nest.

Where the purpose of an encoding is to record multiple witnesses of a single work, rather than to identify multiple possible encoding decisions at a given point, the <app> element and associated elements discussed in section 12.1. The Apparatus Entry, Readings, and Witnesses should be preferred.

Example An American encoding of Gulliver's Travels which retains the British spelling but also provides a version regularized to American spelling might be encoded as follows.
<p>Lastly, That, upon his solemn oath to observe all the above articles, the said man-mountain shall have a daily allowance of meat and drink sufficient for the support of <choice>   <sic>1724</sic>   <corr>1728</corr>  </choice> of our subjects, with free access to our royal person, and other marks of our <choice>   <orig>favour</orig>   <reg>favor</reg>  </choice>.</p>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="2"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.choicePart"/>
  <elementRef key="choice"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element choice
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   ( tei_model.choicePart | tei_choice )+
}

Appendix A.1.21 <cit>

<cit> (cited quotation) contains a quotation from some other document, together with a bibliographic reference to its source. In a dictionary it may contain an example text with at least one occurrence of the word form, used in the sense being described, or a translation of the headword, or an example. [3.3.3. Quotation 4.3.1. Grouped Texts 9.3.5.1. Examples]
Module core
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
right
Member of
Contained by
May contain
certainty: certainty
linking: anchor
msdescription: msDesc
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
Example
<cit>  <quote>and the breath of the whale is frequently attended with such an insupportable smell,    as to bring on disorder of the brain.</quote>  <bibl>Ulloa's South America</bibl> </cit>
Example
<entry>  <form>   <orth>horrifier</orth>  </form>  <cit type="translationxml:lang="en">   <quote>to horrify</quote>  </cit>  <cit type="example">   <quote>elle était horrifiée par la dépense</quote>   <cit type="translationxml:lang="en">    <quote>she was horrified at the expense.</quote>   </cit>  </cit> </entry>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.qLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.egLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.biblLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <classRef key="model.entryPart"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element cit
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   attribute rend { list { "right"+ } }?,
   (
      tei_model.qLike
    | tei_model.egLike
    | tei_model.biblLike
    | tei_model.ptrLike
    | tei_model.global
    | tei_model.entryPart
   )+
}

Appendix A.1.22 <closer>

<closer> groups together salutations, datelines, and similar phrases appearing as a final group at the end of a division, especially of a letter. [4.2.2. Openers and Closers 4.2. Elements Common to All Divisions]
Module textstructure
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: table
textstructure: back body div front
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: dateline salute signed
character data
Example
<div type="letter">  <p> perhaps you will favour me with a sight of it when convenient.</p>  <closer>   <salute>I remain, &amp;c. &amp;c.</salute>   <signed>H. Colburn</signed>  </closer> </div>
Example
<div type="chapter">  <p> <!-- ... --> and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.</p>  <closer>   <dateline>    <name type="place">Trieste-Zürich-Paris,</name>    <date>1914–1921</date>   </dateline>  </closer> </div>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <elementRef key="signed"/>
  <elementRef key="dateline"/>
  <elementRef key="salute"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element closer
{
   (
      text
    | tei_model.gLike
    | tei_signed
    | tei_dateline
    | tei_salute
    | tei_model.phrase
    | tei_model.global
   )*
}

Appendix A.1.23 <conversion>

<conversion> defines how to calculate one unit of measure in terms of another. [2.3.9. The Unit Declaration]
Module header
Attributes Attributes  att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) att.formula (@formula)
fromUnit indicates a source unit of measure that is to be converted into another unit indicated in toUnit.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.pointer
toUnit the target unit of measurement for a conversion from a source unit referenced in fromUnit.
Status Required
Datatype teidata.pointer
Contained by
header: unitDef
May contain Empty element
Note

The conversion element is designed to store information about converting from one unit of measurement to another. The formula attribute holds an XPath expression that indicates how the measurement system in fromUnit is converted to the system in toUnit. Do not confuse the usage of the dating attributes (from and to) in the examples with the attributes (fromUnit and toUnit) designed to reference units of measure.

Example
<conversion fromUnit="#shilling"  toUnit="#penceformula="$fromUnit * 12from="1707"  to="1971"/>
Example
<conversion fromUnit="#pound"  toUnit="#shillingformula="$fromUnit * 20from="1701"  to="1971"/>
Content model
<content>
 <empty/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element conversion
{
   tei_att.global.attributes,
   tei_att.datable.attributes,
   tei_att.formula.attributes,
   attribute fromUnit { text },
   attribute toUnit { text },
   empty
}

Appendix A.1.24 <corr>

<corr> (correction) contains the correct form of a passage apparently erroneous in the copy text. [3.4.1. Apparent Errors]
Module core
Attributes Attributesatt.global.responsibility (cert, @resp)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
figures: table
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: msDesc origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Example If all that is desired is to call attention to the fact that the copy text has been corrected, <corr> may be used alone:
I don't know, Juan. It's so far in the past now — how <corr>can we</corr> prove or disprove anyone's theories?
Example It is also possible, using the <choice> and <sic> elements, to provide an uncorrected reading:
I don't know, Juan. It's so far in the past now — how <choice>  <sic>we can</sic>  <corr>can we</corr> </choice> prove or disprove anyone's theories?
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element corr
{
   tei_att.global.responsibility.attribute.resp,
   tei_macro.paraContent
}

Appendix A.1.25 <date>

<date> contains a date in any format. [3.5.4. Dates and Times 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 2.6. The Revision Description 3.11.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information 15.2.3. The Setting Description 13.3.7. Dates and Times]
Module core
Attributes Attributes  att.canonical (@key, @ref) att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)
cert (certainty) signifies the degree of certainty associated with the intervention or interpretation.
Derived from att.global.responsibility
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.probCert
Legal values are:
medium
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: origDate
textcrit: app
character data
Example
<date when="1980-02">early February 1980</date>
Example
Given on the <date when="1977-06-12">Twelfth Day of June in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy-seven of the Republic the Two Hundredth and first and of the University the Eighty-Sixth.</date>
Example
<date when="1990-09">September 1990</date>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element date
{
   tei_att.canonical.attributes,
   tei_att.datable.w3c.attribute.when,
   tei_att.datable.w3c.attribute.notBefore,
   tei_att.datable.w3c.attribute.notAfter,
   tei_att.datable.w3c.attribute.from,
   tei_att.datable.w3c.attribute.to,
   attribute cert { "medium" }?,
   ( text | tei_model.gLike | tei_model.phrase | tei_model.global )*
}

Appendix A.1.26 <dateline>

<dateline> contains a brief description of the place, date, time, etc. of production of a letter, newspaper story, or other work, prefixed or suffixed to it as a kind of heading or trailer. [4.2.2. Openers and Closers]
Module textstructure
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
center
italic
right
indent
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: table
textstructure: back body closer div front opener
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: origDate
textcrit: app
character data
Example
<dateline>Walden, this 29. of August 1592</dateline>
Example
<div type="chapter">  <p> <!-- ... --> and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.</p>  <closer>   <dateline>    <name type="place">Trieste-Zürich-Paris,</name>    <date>1914–1921</date>   </dateline>  </closer> </div>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.phrase"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
  <elementRef key="docDate"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element dateline
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   attribute rend { list { ( "center" | "italic" | "right" | "indent" )+ } }?,
   ( text | tei_model.gLike | tei_model.phrase | tei_model.global | docDate )*
}

Appendix A.1.27 <del>

<del> (deletion) contains a letter, word, or passage deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector. [3.4.3. Additions, Deletions, and Omissions]
Module core
Attributes Attributes
n (number) gives a number (or other label) for an element, which is not necessarily unique within the document.
Derived from att.global
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.text
Legal values are:
1
2
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
overstrike
overtyped
overwritten
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
figures: table
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: msDesc origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Note

This element should be used for deletion of shorter sequences of text, typically single words or phrases. The <delSpan> element should be used for longer sequences of text, for those containing structural subdivisions, and for those containing overlapping additions and deletions.

The text deleted must be at least partially legible in order for the encoder to be able to transcribe it (unless it is restored in a <supplied> tag). Illegible or lost text within a deletion may be marked using the <gap> tag to signal that text is present but has not been transcribed, or is no longer visible. Attributes on the <gap> element may be used to indicate how much text is omitted, the reason for omitting it, etc. If text is not fully legible, the <unclear> element (available when using the additional tagset for transcription of primary sources) should be used to signal the areas of text which cannot be read with confidence in a similar way.

Degrees of uncertainty over what can still be read, or whether a deletion was intended may be indicated by use of the <certainty> element (see 21. Certainty, Precision, and Responsibility).

There is a clear distinction in the TEI between <del> and <surplus> on the one hand and <gap> or <unclear> on the other. <del> indicates a deletion present in the source being transcribed, which states the author's or a later scribe's intent to cancel or remove text. <surplus> indicates material present in the source being transcribed which should have been so deleted, but which is not in fact. <gap> or <unclear>, by contrast, signal an editor's or encoder's decision to omit something or their inability to read the source text. See sections 11.3.1.7. Text Omitted from or Supplied in the Transcription and 11.3.3.2. Use of the gap, del, damage, unclear, and supplied Elements in Combination for the relationship between these and other related elements used in detailed transcription.

Example
<l>  <del rend="overtyped">Mein</del> Frisch <del rend="overstriketype="primary">schwebt</del> weht der Wind </l>
Example
<del rend="overstrike">  <gap reason="illegiblequantity="5"   unit="character"/> </del>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element del
{
   attribute n { "1" | "2" }?,
   attribute rend { list { ( "overstrike" | "overtyped" | "overwritten" )+ } }?,
   tei_macro.paraContent
}

Appendix A.1.28 <delSpan>

<delSpan> (deleted span of text) marks the beginning of a longer sequence of text deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise signaled as superfluous or spurious by an author, scribe, annotator, or corrector. [11.3.1.4. Additions and Deletions]
Module transcr
Attributes Attributes  att.spanning (@spanTo)
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
overstrike
Member of
Contained by
May contain Empty element
Note

Both the beginning and ending of the deleted sequence must be marked: the beginning by the <delSpan> element, the ending by the target of the spanTo attribute.

The text deleted must be at least partially legible, in order for the encoder to be able to transcribe it. If it is not legible at all, the <delSpan> tag should not be used. Rather, the <gap> tag should be employed to signal that text cannot be transcribed, with the value of the reason attribute giving the cause for the omission from the transcription as deletion. If it is not fully legible, the <unclear> element should be used to signal the areas of text which cannot be read with confidence. See further sections 11.3.1.7. Text Omitted from or Supplied in the Transcription and, for the close association of the <delSpan> tag with the <gap>, <damage>, <unclear> and <supplied> elements, 11.3.3.2. Use of the gap, del, damage, unclear, and supplied Elements in Combination.

The <delSpan> tag should not be used for deletions made by editors or encoders. In these cases, either the <corr> tag or the <gap> tag should be used.

Example
<p>Paragraph partially deleted. This is the undeleted portion <delSpan spanTo="#a23"/>and this the deleted portion of the paragraph.</p> <p>Paragraph deleted together with adjacent material.</p> <p>Second fully deleted paragraph.</p> <p>Paragraph partially deleted; in the middle of this paragraph the deletion ends and the anchor point marks the resumption <anchor xml:id="a23"/> of the text. ...</p>
Schematron
<s:assert test="@spanTo">The @spanTo attribute of <s:name/> is required.</s:assert>
Schematron
<s:assert test="@spanTo">L'attribut spanTo est requis.</s:assert>
Content model
<content>
 <empty/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element delSpan
{
   tei_att.spanning.attributes,
   attribute rend { list { "overstrike"+ } }?,
   empty
}

Appendix A.1.29 <div>

<div> (text division) contains a subdivision of the front, body, or back of a text. [4.1. Divisions of the Body]
Module textstructure
Attributes Attributes  att.written (@hand) att.global.linking (synch, sameAs, copyOf, next, prev, exclude, select, @corresp) att.global.source (@source)
rend (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.
Derived from att.global.rendition
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
left
right
text-center
center
type characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived from att.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Legal values are:
poem
Member of
Contained by
textcrit: lem rdg
textstructure: back body div front
May contain
Example
<body>  <div type="part">   <head>Fallacies of Authority</head>   <p>The subject of which is Authority in various shapes, and the object, to repress all      exercise of the reasoning faculty.</p>   <div n="1type="chapter">    <head>The Nature of Authority</head>    <p>With reference to any proposed measures having for their object the greatest        happiness of the greatest number [...]</p>    <div n="1.1type="section">     <head>Analysis of Authority</head>     <p>What on any given occasion is the legitimate weight or influence to be attached to          authority [...] </p>    </div>    <div n="1.2type="section">     <head>Appeal to Authority, in What Cases Fallacious.</head>     <p>Reference to authority is open to the charge of fallacy when [...] </p>    </div>   </div>  </div> </body>
Schematron
<s:report test="ancestor::tei:l"> Abstract model violation: Lines may not contain higher-level structural elements such as div. </s:report>
Schematron
<s:report test="ancestor::tei:p or ancestor::tei:ab and not(ancestor::tei:floatingText)"> Abstract model violation: p and ab may not contain higher-level structural elements such as div. </s:report>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <alternate minOccurs="0"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.divTop"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"/>
  </alternate>
  <sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
   <alternate minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
    <sequence minOccurs="1"
     maxOccurs="unbounded">
     <alternate minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
      <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
      <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
     </alternate>
     <classRef key="model.global"
      minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    </sequence>
    <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
     <sequence minOccurs="1"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <classRef key="model.common"/>
      <classRef key="model.global"
       minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
     </sequence>
     <sequence minOccurs="0"
      maxOccurs="unbounded">
      <alternate minOccurs="1"
       maxOccurs="1">
       <classRef key="model.divLike"/>
       <classRef key="model.divGenLike"/>
      </alternate>
      <classRef key="model.global"
       minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
     </sequence>
    </sequence>
   </alternate>
   <sequence minOccurs="0"
    maxOccurs="unbounded">
    <classRef key="model.divBottom"/>
    <classRef key="model.global"
     minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
   </sequence>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element div
{
   tei_att.global.linking.attribute.corresp,
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   tei_att.written.attributes,
   attribute rend { list { ( "left" | "right" | "text-center" | "center" )+ } }?,
   attribute type { "poem" }?,
   (
      ( tei_model.divTop | tei_model.global )*,
      (
         (
            ( ( tei_model.divLike | tei_model.divGenLike ), tei_model.global* )+
          | (
               ( tei_model.common, tei_model.global* )+,
               (
                  ( tei_model.divLike | tei_model.divGenLike ),
                  tei_model.global*
               )*
            )
         ),
         ( tei_model.divBottom, tei_model.global* )*
      )?
   )
}

Appendix A.1.30 <docAuthor>

<docAuthor> (document author) contains the name of the author of the document, as given on the title page (often but not always contained in a byline). [4.6. Title Pages]
Module textstructure
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: table
textstructure: back body div front titlePage
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Note

The document author's name often occurs within a byline, but the <docAuthor> element may be used whether the <byline> element is used or not. It should be used only for the author(s) of the entire document, not for author(s) of any subset or part of it. (Attributions of authorship of a subset or part of the document, for example of a chapter in a textbook or an article in a newspaper, may be encoded with <byline> without <docAuthor>.)

Example
<titlePage>  <docTitle>   <titlePart>Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four      Parts.</titlePart>  </docTitle>  <byline> By <docAuthor>Lemuel Gulliver</docAuthor>, First a Surgeon,    and then a Captain of several Ships</byline> </titlePage>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element docAuthor { tei_macro.phraseSeq }

Appendix A.1.31 <docTitle>

<docTitle> (document title) contains the title of a document, including all its constituents, as given on a title page. [4.6. Title Pages]
Module textstructure
Member of
Contained by
textstructure: back front titlePage
May contain
certainty: certainty
linking: anchor
textcrit: app
textstructure: titlePart
Example
<docTitle>  <titlePart type="main">The DUNCIAD, VARIOURVM.</titlePart>  <titlePart type="sub">WITH THE PROLEGOMENA of SCRIBLERUS.</titlePart> </docTitle>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <classRef key="model.global"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <sequence minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <elementRef key="titlePart"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element docTitle { tei_model.global*, ( tei_titlePart, tei_model.global* )+ }

Appendix A.1.32 <encodingDesc>

<encodingDesc> (encoding description) documents the relationship between an electronic text and the source or sources from which it was derived. [2.3. The Encoding Description 2.1.1. The TEI Header and Its Components]
Module header
Member of
Contained by
header: teiHeader
May contain
core: p
linking: ab
textcrit: variantEncoding
Example
<encodingDesc>  <p>Basic encoding, capturing lexical information only. All    hyphenation, punctuation, and variant spellings normalized. No    formatting or layout information preserved.</p> </encodingDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="1"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.encodingDescPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element encodingDesc { ( tei_model.encodingDescPart | tei_model.pLike )+ }

Appendix A.1.33 <epigraph>

<epigraph> contains a quotation, anonymous or attributed, appearing at the start or end of a section or on a title page. [4.2.3. Arguments, Epigraphs, and Postscripts 4.2. Elements Common to All Divisions 4.6. Title Pages]
Module textstructure
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
Member of
Contained by
core: lg list
figures: table
textstructure: back body div front opener titlePage
May contain
certainty: certainty
figures: table
linking: ab anchor
msdescription: msDesc
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
Example
<epigraph xml:lang="la">  <cit>   <bibl>Lucret.</bibl>   <quote>    <l part="F">petere inde coronam,</l>    <l>Vnde prius nulli velarint tempora Musae.</l>   </quote>  </cit> </epigraph>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate minOccurs="0"
  maxOccurs="unbounded">
  <classRef key="model.common"/>
  <classRef key="model.global"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element epigraph
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   ( tei_model.common | tei_model.global )*
}

Appendix A.1.34 <ex>

<ex> (editorial expansion) contains a sequence of letters added by an editor or transcriber when expanding an abbreviation. [11.3.1.2. Abbreviation and Expansion]
Module transcr
Member of
Contained by
May contain Character data only
Example
The address is Southmoor <choice>  <expan>R<ex>oa</ex>d</expan>  <abbr>Rd</abbr> </choice>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.xtext"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element ex { tei_macro.xtext }

Appendix A.1.35 <expan>

<expan> (expansion) contains the expansion of an abbreviation. [3.5.5. Abbreviations and Their Expansions]
Module core
Attributes Attributesatt.global.responsibility (cert, @resp)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
analysis: pc
certainty: certainty
header: idno
linking: anchor seg
msdescription: origDate
textcrit: app
textstructure: floatingText
character data
Note

The content of this element should be the expanded abbreviation, usually (but not always) a complete word or phrase. The <ex> element provided by the transcr module may be used to mark up sequences of letters supplied within such an expansion.

If abbreviations are expanded silently, this practice should be documented in the <editorialDecl>, either with a <normalization> element or a <p>.

Example
The address is Southmoor <choice>  <expan>Road</expan>  <abbr>Rd</abbr> </choice>
Example
<choice xml:lang="la">  <abbr>Imp</abbr>  <expan>Imp<ex>erator</ex>  </expan> </choice>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element expan
{
   tei_att.global.responsibility.attribute.resp,
   tei_macro.phraseSeq
}

Appendix A.1.36 <facsimile>

<facsimile> contains a representation of some written source in the form of a set of images rather than as transcribed or encoded text. [11.1. Digital Facsimiles]
Module transcr
Attributes Attributes  att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.analytic (@ana)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declaring (@decls)
Member of
Contained by
textstructure: TEI
May contain
core: graphic
textstructure: back front
Example
<facsimile>  <graphic url="page1.png"/>  <surface>   <graphic url="page2-highRes.png"/>   <graphic url="page2-lowRes.png"/>  </surface>  <graphic url="page3.png"/>  <graphic url="page4.png"/> </facsimile>
Example
<facsimile>  <surface ulx="0uly="0lrx="200lry="300">   <graphic url="Bovelles-49r.png"/>  </surface> </facsimile>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="front" minOccurs="0"/>
  <alternate minOccurs="1"
   maxOccurs="unbounded">
   <classRef key="model.graphicLike"/>
   <elementRef key="surface"/>
   <elementRef key="surfaceGrp"/>
  </alternate>
  <elementRef key="back" minOccurs="0"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element facsimile
{
   tei_att.global.attributes,
   tei_att.declaring.attributes,
   ( tei_front?, ( tei_model.graphicLike | surface | surfaceGrp )+, tei_back? )
}

Appendix A.1.37 <fileDesc>

<fileDesc> (file description) contains a full bibliographic description of an electronic file. [2.2. The File Description 2.1.1. The TEI Header and Its Components]
Module header
Attributes Attributesatt.global.source (@source)
Contained by
header: teiHeader
May contain
Note

The major source of information for those seeking to create a catalogue entry or bibliographic citation for an electronic file. As such, it provides a title and statements of responsibility together with details of the publication or distribution of the file, of any series to which it belongs, and detailed bibliographic notes for matters not addressed elsewhere in the header. It also contains a full bibliographic description for the source or sources from which the electronic text was derived.

Example
<fileDesc>  <titleStmt>   <title>The shortest possible TEI document</title>  </titleStmt>  <publicationStmt>   <p>Distributed as part of TEI P5</p>  </publicationStmt>  <sourceDesc>   <p>No print source exists: this is an original digital text</p>  </sourceDesc> </fileDesc>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
   <elementRef key="titleStmt"/>
   <elementRef key="editionStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>
   <elementRef key="extent" minOccurs="0"/>
   <elementRef key="publicationStmt"/>
   <elementRef key="seriesStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>
   <elementRef key="notesStmt"
    minOccurs="0"/>
  </sequence>
  <elementRef key="sourceDesc"
   minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element fileDesc
{
   tei_att.global.source.attribute.source,
   (
      (
         tei_titleStmt,
         editionStmt?,
         extent?,
         tei_publicationStmt,
         seriesStmt?,
         tei_notesStmt?
      ),
      tei_sourceDesc+
   )
}

Appendix A.1.38 <floatingText>

<floatingText> contains a single text of any kind, whether unitary or composite, which interrupts the text containing it at any point and after which the surrounding text resumes. [4.3.2. Floating Texts]
Module textstructure
Attributes Attributesatt.global.rendition (style, rendition, @rend) att.typed (subtype, @type)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
certainty: certainty
linking: anchor
textcrit: app
textstructure: back body front
Note

A floating text has the same content as any other <text> and may thus be interrupted by another floating text, or contain a <group> of tesselated texts.

Example
<body>  <div type="scene">   <sp>    <p>Hush, the players begin...</p>   </sp>   <floatingText type="pwp">    <body>     <div type="act">      <sp>       <l>In Athens our tale takes place [...]</l>      </sp> <!-- ... rest of nested act here -->     </div>    </body>   </floatingText>   <sp>    <p>Now that the play is finished ...</p>   </sp>  </div> </body>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
  <classRef key="model.global"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
   <elementRef key="front"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
  <alternate minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1">
   <elementRef key="body"/>
   <elementRef key="group"/>
  </alternate>
  <classRef key="model.global"
   minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  <sequence minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1">
   <elementRef key="back"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element floatingText
{
   tei_att.global.rendition.attribute.rend,
   tei_att.typed.attribute.type,
   (
      tei_model.global*,
      ( tei_front, tei_model.global* )?,
      ( tei_body | group ),
      tei_model.global*,
      ( tei_back, tei_model.global* )?
   )
}

Appendix A.1.39 <front>

<front> (front matter) contains any prefatory matter (headers, abstracts, title page, prefaces, dedications, etc.) found at the start of a document, before the main body. [4.6. Title Pages 4. Default Text Structure]
Module textstructure
Contained by
textstructure: floatingText text
transcr: facsimile